Mycology

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  • Created by: elliev46
  • Created on: 24-04-15 09:22

What are the characteristics of fungi?

Eukaryotic

Heterotrophs- any carbonaceous substrate  

Multi celluar

Non motile 

Sexual and Asexual reproduction 

Recycle dead plant material 

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NOT PLANTS! A KINGDOM IN ITSELF!

Absorptive Nutrition (Heterotrophic)

Secrete hydrolytic enzymes & acids and absorb byproducts 

SAPROPHYTE- dead organic material 

PARISITIC- cells of living hosts 

MUTUALISTIC- cells of living host but benefit the host 

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YEASTS VS

Yeast UNICELLULAR 

Asexual reproduction- Budding & Sexual- Asci or Basidia

S. cerevisiae ---> candida 

 

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MOULDS

Mass of HYPHAE (basic structural unit) that makes up 1 individual fungus- MYCELIUM 

Hyphae-

  • Septate: divided into cells by cross walls- septa
  • Aseptate: no cross walls- coenocytic
  • Modified: haustoria in parisitic fungi- penetrate host tissues, remain outside membrane 

Tubular (SA) cell walls- CHITIN

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Reproduction

Most Diploid 

ASEXUAL- Sporangiophores: upright stalk, enclosed sac 

  • Conidia: upright stalk, no enclosed sac (penicillin)
  • Fragmentation: hyphae dry out & shatter releasing individual cells 
  • Budding

Spreading Spores

  • Shoot in the air
  • Animals, water, wind
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Classification

ZYGOMYCOTA (Z is like a line of thread)

  • Thread like (bread mould)
  • Aseptate hyphae 
  • Sexual reproduction- Conjugation hyphae from 2 different strains

BASIDIOMYCOTA (basil and mushroom cooking)

  • Sepatate hyphae
  • Sexual reproduction- reproductive structure basidiocarp (mushroom), basidiospores produced on basidia (edges of gills)

ASCOMYCOTA 

  • Largest (Royal Ascot)
  • Asci reproductive sacs, produce ascospores- ascus ruptures, released into air
  • e.g. yeast, mildews 

DEUTEROMYCOTA

  • 'Imperfect fungi' (deutero- dirty)
  • No sexual cycle observed
  • e.g athletes foot, ring worm, penicillium 
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Lichens

SYMBIOSIS- ALGAE WITH FUNGAL HYPHAE

Alga- fixes nitrogen, food

Fungus- env. for growth, absorbs minerals, prevent predation

REPRODUCTION 

fungi sexually, alga asexually

symbiotic units asexually- fragmentation of parent--> soredia (hyphae with embedded algae) 

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Pathogenic

Surfaces as not invasive 

Systemic-

usually soil fungi 

immunocompromised hosts 

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