F324 OCR reactions and conditions

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Conditions for nitration of benzene
Conc HNO3, conc H2SO4 at temp of 50C
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Halogenation of benzene
Halogen carrier e.g. FeX3 or Fe
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Oxidising of primary alcohol to aldehyde
Acidified potassium dichromate. H+/Cr2O7-, distilliation
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Oxidising of primary alcohol to carboxylic acid
Acidified potassium dichromate. H+/Cr2O7-, under reflux
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Oxidising of aldehydes to carboxylic acids
Acidified potassium dichromate. H+/Cr2O7-, under reflux
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Reducing aldehydes and ketones to alcohols
Sodium Borohydride, NaBH4, water as solvent
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Detecting the presence of a carbonyl group
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNP) - makes yellow/orange ppt
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Tollens reagent with aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes - silver, grey solid or 'silver mirror'. Ketone - no reaction
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Esters from carboxylic acids
Conc H2SO4
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Esters from acid anhydrides
Gently heated with an alcohol
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Acid hydrolysis of esters
Heated under reflux with dilute H2SO4
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Alkaline hydrolysis of esters
Aqueous alkaline conditions. Aq NaOH or aq KOH under reflux
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Preparation of primary aliphatic amines
Excess of ammonia, using ethanol as the solvent
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Preparing aromatic amines
Mixture of tin and hydrochloric acid
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Diazotisation
Nitrous acid (generated in situ), excess HCL and kept below 10C
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Coupling (benzenediazonium chloride with phenol)
Under alkaline conditions
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Acid hydrolysis of polypeptides and proteins
Aq acid. Traditionally, under reflux with 6mol dm-3 HCL for 24 hrs
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Alkaline hydrolysis of polypeptides and proteins
Aq NaOH, just above 100C
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Hydrolysis of polyesters
Hot aq NaOH or hot aq HCl
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Hydrolysis of polyamides
Hot aq NaOH or hot aq HCl
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Halogenoalkane to alcohol
NaOH/H2O under reflux
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Halogenation of benzene

Back

Halogen carrier e.g. FeX3 or Fe

Card 3

Front

Oxidising of primary alcohol to aldehyde

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Oxidising of primary alcohol to carboxylic acid

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Oxidising of aldehydes to carboxylic acids

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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