Ethnic differences in achievement: key studies and findings

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Gillborn and Mirza
How black students' achievement in relation to the national average declines over time
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Strand
Analysed the entire national cohort of over 530 000 7-11 y/o
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Gillborn and Youdell
'Racialised expectations' and discipline
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Bourne
Black boys are seen as a threat which leads to their exclusion
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Osler
Black pupils, exclusions and PRU's
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Wright
Teachers' ethnocentric views affect how they relate to Asians
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Foster
Teachers' stereotypes of blacks as badly behaved could result in them being placed in lower sets
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Fuller
Studied a group of black girls in year 11 of a London comprehensive school
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Mac an Ghaill
Studied black and Asian A-level students at a 6th form college
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Mirza
3 types of teacher racism
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Sewell
4 responses from male pupils
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Archer and Francis
Teachers' view of Chinese pupils is a 'negative positive stereotype'
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Archer
Even the successes of EM (and female) pupils will only be seen as 'over achievement'
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Archer
3 different pupil identities
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Archer
Teachers stereotype Asian girls as quiet, passive or docile
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Shain
When Asian girls challenge this stereotype by misbehaving, they are often dealt with more severely
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Mason
'Discrimination is a continuing and persistent feature of the experience of Britain's citizens of minority ethnic origin'
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Rex
Racial discrimination leads to social exclusion and this worsens poverty faced by EM's
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Wood et al
Job applications experiment
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Lupton
Adult authority in Asian families is similar to the model that operates in schools
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McCulloch
Survey of 16 000 pupils found that EM pupils were more likely to aspire to go to university than white British pupils
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Scruton
Failue to embrace mainstream British culture
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Bereiter and Engelmann
The language spoken by low-income black Americans is inadequate for educational success
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Pryce
Asians, blacks and colonalisation
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Moynihan
Black families w/ lone mothers struggle financially
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Murray
A high rate of lone parenthood and a lack of positive male role models lead to the underachievement of some minorities
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Sewell
A lack of fatherly nurturing leads to black boys underachieving
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Arnot
Street gangs present fatherless boys with a media-inspired role model of anti-school black masculinity
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Driver
CD theory ignores the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement
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Lawrence
Black pupils underachieve not because of low self-esteem, but racism
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Keddie
CD theory is a victim-blaming explanation
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Palmer
EM's are more likely to suffer from material deprivation
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Gillborn
Marketisation allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about school admissions
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Moore and Davenport
Selection procedures lead to ethnic segregation
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Roithmayr
Institutional racism is a 'locked-in inequality'
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Gillborn
Ethnic inequality is 'so deep rooted and so large that it is a practically inevitable feature of the education system'
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Ball
'Little Englandism'
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Troyna and Williams
Meagre provision for teaching Asian languages as compared w/ European languages
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David
The NC is 'specifically British' and largely ignores non-European languages, literature and music
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Gillborn
Teachers and policymakers see pupils 'ability' or 'potential' as a fixed quality easily measured
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Gillborn and Youdell
2ndary schools are increasingly using old-style intelligence tests to allocate pupils to different streams upon entry
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Gillborn
'The assessment game'
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Tikly et al
In 30 schools in the AH initiative, blacks were more likely to be entered for lower tier GCSE exams
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Gillborn
Whites are over 2x as likely as black Caribbeans to be identified as G&T, and 5x more than black Africans
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Sewell
Racism is not powerful enough to prevent individuals from succeeding, it is external factors instead
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Gillborn
'Model minorities' still suffer racism in schools
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Analysed the entire national cohort of over 530 000 7-11 y/o

Back

Strand

Card 3

Front

'Racialised expectations' and discipline

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Black boys are seen as a threat which leads to their exclusion

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Black pupils, exclusions and PRU's

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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