education studies

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He said that education is responsible for the transmission of
EMILE DURKHEIM norms and values; creating social solidarity & belonging through
subjects such as history and RE. It's also involved in economic
training for a specialised labour force ( why schools have
become more vocational)
He said that education provides a bridge between the family,
TALCOTT PARSONS where we are judged against particularistic standards and
society, where we are judged against universalistic standards
e.g. individual achievement is a core value we need later on.
He said that education provides the function of role allocation
DAVIS AND MOORE based on meritocracy. Position in society is fair because those
who are most able are rewarded with the most
important/functional jobs (high pay).
He believed that meritocracy was a `myth' in which we don't all
compete on equal terms. Social class governs our achievement
BOWLES AND and is reproduced through a correspondence principle between
the school and the workplace via the Hidden curriculum.
Studied an anti school subculture to show how working class
PAUL WILLIS kids get working class jobs. In opposition to B & G, found that
such boys rejected the school's norms and values treating
education as a `laugh'. Ironically, this prepared them for the
worst jobs in capitalism.
A proponent of the Material Deprivation Theory. Conducted a
DOUGLAS longitudinal study of British school children and found that
working class under achievement was linked to parental interest
i.e. visiting school to check progress, encouraging child to stay
on in school etc
This sociologist identified the existence of two different
BERNSTEIN language codes: the restricted code (used by both social
classes) and the elaborated code (used only by the middle class
and valued by the education system). This caused the working
class to underachieve in the classroom.
Criticises cultural deprivation theory for blaming the w/c. His
BOURDIEU Cultural Capital theory suggests that the dominant culture (the
basis of education) is that which the m/c are socialised into at
home. So education `culturally reproduces' inequalities as w/c
culture is devalued

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These sociologists criticise cultural deprivation theory by
WESTERGAARD AND arguing that w/c parents do have the same values and interest
in their child's education ­ it is simply their circumstances
RESLER which place limits on their actions e.g. work shifts so cant
attend parents evening.
Supports cultural capital theory­ found that mothers had the
REAY most influence on their child's education. W/c mothers didn't
invest less time in education BUT m/c mothers simply had more
(1998) cultural capital e.g.…read more

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He observed kindergartens and provides support for Hargreaves
findings. Within 8 days of school experience, children had been
RIST divided into tables. Where as the teacher claimed this was `ability'
based, they were actually based on whether the children
(1970) conformed to teacher's m/c standards.
ROSENTHAL AND Studied the effects of the SFP by selecting a random student
sample, measured their IQ and then labelled them as `spurters'.…read more

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Sees the impact of equal opportunity policies as a key reason
BOALER for girls achievement as school as become meritocratic. Girls,
who genuinely work harder than boys, can now achieve their
(1998) potential.
These sociologists argue that the introduction of coursework
MITSOS AND has raised female achievement as it draws on skills they excel
in e.g.…read more

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He claims that ethnic minorities tend to cling onto their
SCRUTON historical roots rather than embrace British culture. As this
(1986) is what the British education system is based on, such groups
find it difficult to succeed.
This sociologist found that by the age of 16, Asian children
DRIVER & BALLARD whose main home language was not English were just as able
in English as their peers- this suggests that language is not a
(1981) factor in DEA amongst ethnic groups.…read more

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This sociologists investigated 3 classes in an inner city multi
CONNOLLY (1998) ethnic primary school. When looking at both black boys and
girls, and Asian boys and girls, found that masculinity,
femininity and ethnicity all interacted to shape achievement.…read more


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