Cofactors, coenzymes, prosthetic groups

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What is a cofactor?
A non-protein (prosthetic) group which enables the enzyme to carry out its function as a catalyst.
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What do cofactors do?
Cofactors either transfer atoms or groups between reactions or compose part of the active site.
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What is a coenzyme?
A coenzyme is a cofactor made up of an organic molecule.
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Name a cofactor of amylase and state its function.
Amylase contains a chloride ion which is necessary for the formation of a correctly shaped active site
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Which vitamin is required to form the coenzymes NAD and NADP?
Vitamin B3
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What is NAD?
A coenzyme responsible for the transfer of hydrogen atoms between molecules involved in respiration
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What is the difference between a cofactor and a prosthetic group?
Prosthetic groups are tightly bound to the protein/enzyme, forming one of its permanent features, whereas cofactors bind loosely to proteins (such as an enzyme) in order to activate them without forming part of the enzyme's structure.
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What is a precursor enzyme?
The inactive apoenzyme before the addition of the activating cofactor/coenzyme
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What are proenzymes/zymogens?
Types of precursor enzyme which require changes in temperature, pH or the action of another enzyme for activation
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how are holoenzymes 'activated'?
Their tertiary structure changes to produce the specific shape of their active site
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Card 2

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What do cofactors do?

Back

Cofactors either transfer atoms or groups between reactions or compose part of the active site.

Card 3

Front

What is a coenzyme?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name a cofactor of amylase and state its function.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which vitamin is required to form the coenzymes NAD and NADP?

Back

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