English Language Acquisition - Phonology

At around 1 to 2 years old, the two-word stage, pronunciation is still very immature.

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Features of pronunciation at the two-word stage?
1) Lip sounds and plosives come early. 2) initial consonants appear correctly before later ones. 3) More different sounds are used at the beginnings of words,rather than the ends. 4) Friction sounds are avoided. 5) sounds from front of mouth preferre
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Features of pronunciation at the two-word stage?continued..
6) in 3 sound words, sounds are produced in the same position e.g. 'gog' - assimilation. 7) Consonant clusters avoided. 8) Final consonants left out. 9) Avoidance of 'quiet' syllables - e.g. the 'g' in 'giraffe'.
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Features of pronunciation at the two-word stage?continued..
10) reduplication - repeating syllables common. 11) Prefer initial voiced, final voiceless sounds - e.g 'Boo'. This leads to deletion whereby children miss out the final consonant of a word -'ca' for 'cat' 12) substitution - 'tip' for 'ship'
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Berko and Brown
The 'fis' phenomenon - Babies do not hear themselves in the same way that they hear others and no amound of correction will change this.
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Skinner
This is one framework where you might find evidence in support of the immitation theory, children might immitate their parents accent.
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What sounds are standardised at the telegraphic stage (2-3 years)?
P, B, T, D, K, G, M, H, J
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What are the last consonantal sounds to be produced accurately?
'f' - Phone, 'Th' - This, 'Ch' - Chin, 'Gy' - Gym
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Card 2

Front

Features of pronunciation at the two-word stage?continued..

Back

6) in 3 sound words, sounds are produced in the same position e.g. 'gog' - assimilation. 7) Consonant clusters avoided. 8) Final consonants left out. 9) Avoidance of 'quiet' syllables - e.g. the 'g' in 'giraffe'.

Card 3

Front

Features of pronunciation at the two-word stage?continued..

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Berko and Brown

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Skinner

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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