A2 English Theories of Language Development Finished

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  • A2 English Theories of Language Development
    • Imitation theory
      • Skinner 1957
        • language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement
          • children repeat what they hear (imitation)
          • caregivers reward a childs effort with praise
        • This approach says that children learn all the specific pronunciations of individual words by copying an adult
          • therefore in theory it explains an important part of their phonological development
      • Problems with imitation
        • children can construct sentences they have never heart before
        • they do not memorise thousands of sentences to use later
        • imitation cant explain overgeneralizations "he runned away" and also the fis phenomenon
    • Innate
      • Chomsky 1965
        • argued that a child's ability to acquire language is inbuilt
        • isnt taught but is a natural development when children are exposed to language
        • LAD Device
          • allows them to take in and use grammatical rules of language
        • Early Stages of Language Acquisition
          • Vocal Play
            • Crying
          • Cooing
            • 6-8 weeks
            • small range of sounds
              • Vowels
          • Babbling
            • Six Months
            • repeated vowel/ consonant clusters
              • MA-MA-MA
    • Cognitive Approach
      • Piaget
        • stated that a child needs to have developed certain mental abilities before he/she can acquire particular parts of language
          • 1. Egongentice
            • cannot have the concept of something if it exists outside of their immediate surroundings
          • 2. Object permanence
            • objects can exist all the time even if they cant see them
              • big increase in vocabulary
            • 18 months
          • 3. Abstract consepts
            • a child is now better equipped to understand the past, present and future
      • Focuses more on the importance of mental processes
      • criticism
        • does not explain how learning difficulties are still linguistically fluent.
    • Input Approach
      • argues that in order for language to develop there has to be linguistic interaction with caregivers
      • Bruner
        • suggested that there is a LASS System
          • a system where care givers support their heir child's linguistic developments in social situations
            • meal time
            • bath time
            • children who are deprived of early language don't acquire it as easily
              • Lenneberg
                • Critical period hypothesis
    • Sociocultural Theory
      • Vygotsky
        • Private speech
          • when a child talks aloud itself
            • V saw this as a major step forward in a child's mental development
        • ZPD Zone of Proximal Development
          • where careers help the child in order to interact by encouraging a response e.g. doctors
      • This Theory suggests that social interaction and experiencing social and cultural contexts are important
  • children who are deprived of early language don't acquire it as easily
    • Lenneberg
      • Critical period hypothesis

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