English (ELLA2) - Key Terms

Flashcards for all the key terms you need to know for your ELLA2 exam.

Adjacency Pair
A two-part exchange used in conversation.
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A word used to describe a noun.
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A word used to describe a verb.
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An element in a sentence that provides additional information (such as the time, place or manner) about the action that is described in the rest of the sentence.
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When two or more consecutive words begin with the same sound.
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Having more than one possible meaning.
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Anaphoric Reference
A reference back to something mentioned earlier in a text.
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When words and/or ideas are directly opposite in meaning.
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A word or phrase that has fallen out of common use.
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The rhyming of vowel sounds within two or more words.
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Asyndetic listing
A list that does not use conjunctions.
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Auxiliary Verb
A 'helping' verb placed in front of a main verb.
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Blank Verse
Unrhymed poetry based on the iambic pentameter.
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Cataphoric Reference
A reference forward to something mentioned later in a text.
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The techniques used to link together different parts of a text.
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An adjective that makes a comparison.
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Complex Sentence
A sentence with a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
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Compound Sentence
Two simple sentences copmbined to form a single sentence by the use of a co-ordinating conjuction.
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A word that joins together parts of a sentence.
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The associations that a word has.
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A shortened word form.
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A pair of rhymed lines.
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Declarative Utterance/Sentence
A sentence that makes a statement or gives information.
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Pointing words often referring to a place or time.
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The straightforward, objective, dictionary meaning of a word.
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A word placed in front of a noun to indicate the quantity of or identify the noun.
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A form of language with distinctive features of vocabulary, grammar etc...
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Discourse Marker
Words that indicate links or divisions between parts of discourse.
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Dramatic Irony
In drama, when something said by a character has an additional meaning or significance, apparent to the character but not to the character.
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The omission of a sound or syllable.
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When elements are missing from a clause or sentence.
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Emotive Language
Language intended to produce an emotional response i the reader or listener.
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In poetry when the sense of one line continues into the next, and the end of the first line has no punctuation mark.
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Expressive Utterance
A sentence that expresses feelings, opinions or emotions of the speaker.
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False Start
In speech, a change from one grammatical construction to another.
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Field-Specific Lexis
Words associated with a specific topic or field.
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Filled Pause
A voiced hesitation.
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A word or expression with little meaning inserted into speech.
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First Person.
Description using the pronouns I, me, we, us.
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Using word order to highlight part of a sentence.
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The type or format of a text (e.g. short story, newspaper etc...).
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Intentional exaggeration.
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The way language is used by a particular individual.
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Any aspect of a text that appeals to the reader's senses. Also used more specifically to the use, in literature, of similes and metaphors.
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Imperative Sentence/Utterance
A sentence that gives a command or instruction.
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A word that increases or decreases the strength of another word.
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A sentence that asks a question.
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Tone of voice.
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Saying the opposite of what is meant. Can also refer to an event having consequences that are the opposite of those expected or intended.
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A comparison that is not literally true because it refers to something as if it were something else.
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An extended utterance spoken by one person.
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Having on syllable.
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Non-Fluency Features.
Features that interrupt the flow of a person's speech.
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A word that names an object, feeling, person etc...
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When words imitate the sounds they describe.
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Oral SIgnal
An expressive sound, a laugh, cry, sigh etc...
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When parts of sentences, or complete sentences, have a similar pattern or structure.
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Passive Voice
Using a verb in a way that emphasises the object of an action rather than the person or thing performing the action.
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Pathetic Fallacy
A literary technique that uses natural elements to reflect human moods and emotions.
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When something not human is described as if it were.
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Phatic Utterances
Utterances that mean little but are used for social purposes.
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Having two or more syllables.
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Words that follow other words or phrases to add more information.
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Words placed in front of other words or phrases to add more information.
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A word that indicates how one thing is related to another.
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A word used to take the place of a noun.
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Prosodic Features
Phonological aspects of speech such as intonation, pitch and volume.
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A humorous play on words, dependant on the word or phrase having a double meaning.
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Received Pronunciation
The accent associated with upper-class speakers of English.
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The form of language appropriate to a particular situation.
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An utterance that resolves a problem in conversation.
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Rhetorical Features
Traditional devices and techniques used to make speech or writing more powerful or persuasive.
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Rhetorical Question
A question that does not require an answer.
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Second Person
Use of pronouns such as you and your.
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Semantic Field
A group of words with linked or associated meanings.
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The repetition of s, soft c, ch an z sounds.
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A comparison that uses the words like or as.
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Simple Sentence
A sentence that has one clause.
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In drama, an extended speech by a character, heard by the audience but not by other characters.
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Standard English
The standard, formally correct variety of English used in most written texts and taught in schools.
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Subordinate Clause
A clause in a sentence that is of less importance than the main clause, and which cannot stand on it's own and make sense.
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An adjective meaning the most of something.
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Syndetic Listing
A list using one or more conjunctions.
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An aspect of grammar, referring to the ways in which words are put together to form sentences.
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Taboo Language
Words that are avoided because they are considered offensive or obscene.
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Tag Quesiton
A question attached to the end of a statement.
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Third Person
Grammatical constructions that do not use the first or second person. This may involve nouns or third person pronouns.
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In spoken language, the subject being talked about.
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Topic Loop
Return to an earlier topic.
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Topic Marker
An utterance that introduces a topic.
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Topic Shift
A change of topic.
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A word that refers to a physical or mental action, or to a state.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


A word used to describe a noun.



Card 3


A word used to describe a verb.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


An element in a sentence that provides additional information (such as the time, place or manner) about the action that is described in the rest of the sentence.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


When two or more consecutive words begin with the same sound.


Preview of the back of card 5
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