Energy security

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What is the definition of a fuel?
Any material that is burned or altered in some way to obtain energy
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What is the world's most widely used source of energy?
Fossil fuels
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What percentage of energy consumption in 2007 was from fossil fuels ?
85%
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What are the 3 classifications of energy?
Renewable, recyclable, and non renewable
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What is the definition of a fossil fuel?
A resource that is formed over geological time from the partly decaying remains of plants or animals. It is a finite resource and is non renewable
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What is the definition of a recyclable energy source?
A resource which has renewable stock , which can be replenished with careful management
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What is the definition of a renewable resource?
A resource that is capable of natural regeneration on a human time scale , they provide an almost continuous flow of energy
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What are the 2 forms of energy?
Primary and secondary
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What is primary energy?
Energy found in natural sources, such as coal , oil and gas
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What is secondary energy?
Primary energy which has been converted into a more convenient source , often electricity
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What is nuclear energy classed as and why ?
It is classed as a recyclable - this is because although the reserves of uranium are finite ( the source used in energy generation ), the industry is able to reprocess some spent fuel so that it can be reused
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What are the 3 main factors that control the transition from traditional to modern energy use?
Energy availability , energy affordability and cultural preferences
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What negative characterisitc of electricity means that supply and demand have to run in unison?
It can not be stored
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Complete this sentence , 'The move to modern energy is ...'
Increasing, this is due to the fact that as poorer nations develop, people want more modern appliances
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How many coal fired power stations does China build per week?
2 medium sized
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Which region is the most significant in terms of global energy supply of crude oil?
The middle east
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In 2007 how many proven barrels of oil where there globally?
1,239 thousand million
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What is energy demand?
The need or desire for energy
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What is energy consumption?
Refers to the availability and use of energy
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World wide how many people do not have access to a modern energy supply?
2 billion
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Name a country which uses wood and dung as an energy source.
Zimbabwe or India
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What fraction of the world's oil production does transport account for?
Nearly 1/2
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Finish this sentence , ' During the 20 century energy demand increased....'
Tenfold
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By 2050 what is the global expectation of energy demand ?
900 exajoules (double the current demand)
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Why will by 2020, the 2 energy world's have become roughly equal?
The energy consumption of the developing world is expected to double by 2020, while increase in the developed world will be 1/3
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What is the definition of energy security?
The extent to which a country can achieve an affordable, reliable and stable energy supply. The country should have the ability to meet all of the nations needs regardless of any events which might threaten availability
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What are the main risks to energy security?
Physical, Environmental, Economic and Geopolitical
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What is the measure of energy security?
The energy security index (ESI)
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What are the categories of the ESI ?
Extreme risk, High risk, Medium risk, low risk
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Name a country that is in extreme risk on the ESI.
South Korea. Other northern African countries
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Name a country that is in high risk.
USA
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Name an area that is in medium risk
Europe
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Name an area or country in low risk
Canada, Russia and the more stable middle east countries
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What year did the UK become a net importer of gas?
2004
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By 2020 gas imports could account for what percentage of the UK's total demand?
80-90%
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What is the definition of energy mix?
The different sources of energy that a country uses to meet its needs. A good mix increases security. It is beneficial for the country to have an increasing usage of renewable and recyclable sources and had maximum use of domestic sources.
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How many barrels a day does the middle east export?
15,000
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What is the name of one of the most significant gas pipelines
Trans- Siberian
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Name a gas company
Gazprom
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When did Russia cut of supplies to Ukraine?
Jan 2006
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What is an energy pathway?
A route which energy is transported from supplier to consumer
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What are energy nodes?
Major sources of primary energy located in energy rich countries, ie the oilfields of the Middle East
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Give an example of unconventional oil.
Canada's oil shale
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What is OPEC?
An energy cartel
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What is the top oil company? (2005)
Saudi Aramco , 100% state owned by Saudi Arabia
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What are the 3 responses to increasing energy demands?
Business as usual, Multi-energy solution, Energy conservation
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In 2008 how many nuclear reactors were there in 31 countries?
439
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How long are uranium supplies estimated to last for?
150 years
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The IEA estimates that an extra $22 trillion of new investment will be need by when?
2030
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What is the Kyoto protocal?
A protocol on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. A total of 192 countires out of 196 in the world have singed, only the USA, Afghanistan and Sudan have not.
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When was the Kyoto protocol signed?
1997
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Name some carrot and stick methods
Emission controls, Emissions trading, Green taxes
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Name some radical new technologies
Offshore wind farms ,Carbon storage, Geothermal energy, Biofuels
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Give an example of an offshore wind farm
Horns rev off the coast of Dennmark
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What is peak oil?
This term refers to the time when global oil production will begin to decline
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What is GECF?
Gas exporting countries forum
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What is a choke point?
Where the energy pathway is most at risk of disruption , ie the Strait of Hormuz
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What is the definition of geopolitical?
Relates to the relationship between a county and the rest of the world such as areas of sovereignty, economic co-operation , trade , defense and decision making.
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What are the four causes of access to energy sources varying from place to place?
Sources not evenly distributed, sources vary in terms of ease of exploitation, technology needed for extraction not equally available , the demand and need to exploit varies from country to country
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What is the energy mix of the UK?
Coal = 22.9% Nuclear 18.9% and other 1.6%
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What are the 5 scenarios that could result in the disruption of supplies
terrorist attack on infrastructure, natural hazard, disputes between supplier and consumer, exhaustion of reserves, political instability
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What fraction of Europes energy needs are depended upon from Russian supplies?
1/3
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What percentage of this flows through the Ukrainian pipeline?
80%
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What are the 2 main directions in which the search for new sources of energy is moving?
1. New reserves of fossil fuels are being searched for 2. Development of new sources
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Who are the key players in the global supply of energy?
TNC's and state owned companies, consumers, pressure groups, international organisations, national governments, OPEC and GECF
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What are the global energy uncertainties over energy supply?
1. the size of undiscovered oil and gas reserves 2. Scale of switch to renewable 3. Nuclea power or not? 4. The energy gap and its implication on prices 5. The growing oppositio to the use of fossil fuels 6. The future rate of increase in energy
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Card 67 continued
demand 7. Level of future dependence on fossil fuels
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List 3 energy rich countries and 3 energy poor countries
energy rich - Russia, Canada, Iran energy poor- UK, Japan, India
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What are the 5 energy R's?
1. Reduce 2. Reject 3. Research 4. Recycle 5 Reaffirm
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What is the largest energy consuming sector in the UK?
Transport
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When did the 1st oil crisis occur?
1973
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The oil reserves in Africa are mostly being sought by ?
China
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Give an example of a tar sands
Athabasca (Canada)
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Give an example of a nuclear incident
Fukushima
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Give an example of a from of solar power
Photovoltaic cell
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the world's most widely used source of energy?

Back

Fossil fuels

Card 3

Front

What percentage of energy consumption in 2007 was from fossil fuels ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 3 classifications of energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the definition of a fossil fuel?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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