Developmental week 9: Moral development

What are dire tendencies, as part of Carlo's classification of prosocial behaviour?
Result from a response to extremities
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Who developed a prosocial tendencies measure (PTM)?
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What did Carlo find using his PTM?
Mid-adolsecents reported more anonymous and altruistic tendencies.
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How did Grusec explore the emergence of prosocial action in a range of settings at home and in school?
In an experimental study involving marbles and a poster advertising to help poor children.
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What two conditions were there in Grusecs marble prosocial action study?
a) Modelling condition, (B) Preaching condition.
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How many and what age participants were used in Grusecs marble study?
96 children aged 8 - 10
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What did the nearby poster advertise in Grusecs marble study on prosocial behaviour?
Help poor children
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What has been identified from observational studies ?
One third of older children showed prosocial behaviour in various formats, i.e. reassurance.
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What is the order of progressive levels of empathy as children age, as identified in observation studies?
Personal distress, Emotional contagion, Egocentric empathy
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What is emotional contagion?
Display of sympathy emotion.
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What is egocentric empathy?
Offering support that the individual also finds comforting.
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What must be complete in order for prosocial behaviour to occur?
Sensory-Motor development.
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What two aspects of positive parenting did Davido and Grusec investigate?
Responsiveness to distress and warmth
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What did responsiveness to distress significantly relate to in Davidos and Grusecs study on positive parenting?
More effective regulation of negative emotions displayed by children.
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What did warmth correlate to in Davidos and Grusecs positive parenting study?
It did not predict the Childs outcomes.
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What has secure parent child attachments demonstrated in securely attached children?
Greater empathetic behaviour towards peers.
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What should parents regularly encourage children to do in order to produce more prosocial behaviour?
Reflect on the consequences of their behaviour.
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When isn't the internalisation of prosocial values more likely to occur?
When the children are punished for performing non prosocial behaviour
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What did Luthar and Suchman find when they looked at heroin addicted mothers?
Despite their ineffective parenting styles, they were still highly concerned about the emotional wellbeing of their children.
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As an outcome of Luthars and Suchman heroin addicted mothers study, what did they develop?
RPMG: relational psychotherapy mothers group
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What did RPMG not focus on?
Childcare arrangements and support: child centred approach
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What was the outcome of RPMG?
The mothers displayed significantly lower maltreatment scores
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How did Bosacki illustrate how adolescents passively condone antisocial behaviour and fail to act prosaically in defence of vulnerable members of a peer group?
He asked children aged 8 - 12 to draw a bullying episode, then answer a series of bully related questions.
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When the children in Bosackis drawing a bully study were interviewed , what reason did they give for the bullies motives?
The bully had psychological motives
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What was a significant finding between older children vs younger children in Bosackis draw a bully study?
'silencing of the victim' whereby significantly less 12 year olds put speech models, but the majority of the younger children put speech bubbles.
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What is he befriending/ mentoring approach?
specifically trained pupils support peers that are new or socially excluded.
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What is mediation?
It is a structured method of empowering young people to defuse interpersonal disagreements among peers.
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What may gender differences in empirical studies be due to, rather than their actual behaviour?
Conformity to gender stereotypes.
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What is the advantage of using naturalistic designs for the study of the development of children’s moral reasoning?
researchers get a clearer idea of children’s actual processes of reasoning about everyday moral concepts as sharing, fairness and distributive justice
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What does Piaget mean by ‘heteronomous morality’?
it is important to show respect for authority and to avoid being found out
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On what grounds does Gilligan criticize Kohlberg?
he uses artificial moral dilemmas
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. According to Piaget, what is ‘moral realism’?
believing that rules come from a higher authority and cannot be changed
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Are there gender differences in the expression of prosocial behaviour in young people?
more experimental work is needed to answer this question
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who developed a prosocial tendencies measure (PTM)?



Card 3


What did Carlo find using his PTM?


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Card 4


How did Grusec explore the emergence of prosocial action in a range of settings at home and in school?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What two conditions were there in Grusecs marble prosocial action study?


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