Psychodynamic Approach

HideShow resource information
Stigma and Self fulfilling prophecy, What did Harris et al do?
Expectations of behavioural disorder
1 of 148
What was asked?
Children were told to play with a child who either had ADHD and no ADHD
2 of 148
What are the target effect?
Lower enjoyment and self credit for task
3 of 148
What are the alternatives to medical model?
Make no dichotomy between normal and disordered states, consider social and psychological fctors, make the indivdual the focus of treatment, consider non-pharmacological interventions as primary
4 of 148
What is the dimensional approach?
Mental disorders not categorically different - extremes. BUT: does not address processes causing disorder
5 of 148
What has the diagnostic label have?
Little impact on type of treatment given
6 of 148
What is the aim?
Identify processes that led to and maintain problems faced by individuals
7 of 148
What is the explanatory hypothesis?
Guide the therapist and establish criteria to evaluate intervention
8 of 148
what is an approach?
Single position regarding theory and practive of psychotherapy
9 of 148
What is a school?
Grouping of similar approaches
10 of 148
What did Totton do?
Every therapist works from an idea of what people really are like: a vision of human nature
11 of 148
What is critical to remember?
Theories dont develop in a vacuum dramatically influenced by context
12 of 148
What did Freud say about Anna O?
Under hypnosis spoke of past traumas and expressed strong emotions, symptoms cured (cartharsis)
13 of 148
What are implications?
Behaviour influenced by unconscious mental process, physical symptoms could be removed talk therapy, Reminiscenes, painful, shameful, alarming, banished from consciousness
14 of 148
What are the three levels of consciousness?
Conscious, preconscious and unconscious
15 of 148
What is conscious?
Thoughts/feelings that we are aware of
16 of 148
What is the preconscious?
memories/knowlede that we are unaware of but can easily be brought into awareness that we are aware of
17 of 148
What is the unconscious?
Indissmissable material that we are unaware of, influences behaviour, auses of neuroses
18 of 148
What is this called?
Tripatite model of personality made up of three components
19 of 148
What are the three components?
Id, ego and Superego
20 of 148
What is this similar to?
Platos earlier model of the soul which is made up of rational, spirited and appetitive parts
21 of 148
what is Helmholtz theory?
Conservation of Energy: energy neither created nor destroyed but only transforms from one for to another, or transfers from one object to another
22 of 148
What did Brucke say?
All living things are energy systems
23 of 148
What did Freud state?
Psychic energy
24 of 148
What is personality?
Energy systems - transformations and transference of psychic energy from one part to another shape personality
25 of 148
What are instincts?
Source of energy in behaviour and make up the dynamics of personality
26 of 148
What are the instincts of Darwin?
Eros preservation of self and species, sexual drive --> libido and Thanatos - self destruction, aggressive drive --> destructive energy
27 of 148
What is ID?
Original system, present from birth
28 of 148
What does it consist of?
everything inherited, and is filled with energy from the instinct
29 of 148
What strives?
Satisfy instinctual needs with immediate gratification ruled by the pleasure principle (tension, avoid pain, gain pleasure)
30 of 148
What happens if delayed?
primary process thinking, generation of fantasies to gratiy id impulses wish fulfillment
31 of 148
When does Ego develop?
6 months
32 of 148
When is intermediary between id and reality?
Ruld by the reality principles
33 of 148
what is confronted?
secondary process thinking - planning and decision making and repression
34 of 148
Where is there a battle between?
Three systems for Id's emergy: when one gains control of energy at the loss of others
35 of 148
What is a state of tension for anxiety?
Which must be reduced
36 of 148
What is there?
A warning of danger, informing the ego that something must be done
37 of 148
What is it brought about?
by intra-psychic or psychodynamic conflict between ego and systems it interacts with
38 of 148
What are the three factors about anxiety?
Realistics, fear of real dangers in the external world, moral: fear of conscience (conflict with super ego), neurotic (fear of strength of IDs instinctual impulses(conflict with Id)
39 of 148
What are the five developments?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital
40 of 148
What must happen?
Conflicts at each stage must be resolved to move on successfully
41 of 148
What is the failure?
To resolve - fixations - impact on personality
42 of 148
What are personality characteristics are oral?
Dependence, depression, guilt, mistrust
43 of 148
What are personality characteristics are anal?
focus on tidiness, obsessive behaviours
44 of 148
What are personality characteristics are phallic?
Antisocial personality, difficulties in romantic relationships
45 of 148
What are personality characteristics are latency?
Problems with self -control
46 of 148
What personality characteristics are genital?
Identity diffusion
47 of 148
What is the Oedipus complex?
SExual attraction to mother, father seen as rival, fear of castration from father, renouncement of attraction to mother, identification with father
48 of 148
What is the electra complex?
Realisation that she doesnt have a penis, horror and rejection of mother, attraction towards father
49 of 148
What do instinctual demands from id do?
Place it in danger, neurotic anxiety and defence mechanisms to relieve anxiety
50 of 148
What do defence mechanisms do?
develop in childhood
51 of 148
As a result of ?
Struggle against sexuality
52 of 148
What do they do?
operate unconsciously
53 of 148
What are the 6 types of ego defence mechanisms?
Repression, reaction formation, regression, denial, projection and sublimation
54 of 148
What is the ego defence mechanism for Repression?
Preventing unacceptable thoughts from entering consciousness
55 of 148
What is the ego defence mechanism for reaction formation?
Preventing awareness of unacceptable desires by taking opposite stance
56 of 148
What is regression?
REverting to earlier developmental lebel
57 of 148
What is denial?
Refusing to face reality
58 of 148
What is projection?
Attributing own unacceptable thoughts to another
59 of 148
What is sublimation?
Channelling fustrated energy into sociall acceptable outlet
60 of 148
What is repression?
Repressed instinctual drive still exists --> continues to influence behaviour
61 of 148
What about with other defence mechanisms?
Repression can be normal behaviour
62 of 148
What can it also give rise to?
Neuroses difference is a matter of degree no kind - dimensional
63 of 148
FREUDIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY
FREUDIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY
64 of 148
What is meant by neuroses?
Originate in childhood, symptoms may be later
65 of 148
What is it triggered by?
Stress or crisis
66 of 148
What is normal?
Passing through the stages successfully without major fixations, development of successful ego and super ego and evolving adequate defence mechanisms
67 of 148
What is neurotic behaviour?
Fustration of sexual impulses or damming up of sexual instincts by ego - repression, transforming fustrated sexual impulses into neurotic symptoms, evolving inadequate defence mechanisms
68 of 148
Why do neuroses perpetuate?
Because repressions are unconscious --. ego does not have access so conflict cant be resolved
69 of 148
Why does OCD develop according to freud?
fixation at anal stage
70 of 148
What occurs?
Battle between opposing forces involves explicit thoughts and actions
71 of 148
What is depression similar to?
Grieving regression to oral stage,
72 of 148
What is depression?
An introjection of negative feelings
73 of 148
When are neuroses acquired? and how are they maintained?
During childhood, but are maintained because the cause of the issues has been repressed - unconscious
74 of 148
When is the less restricted id?
Freeing of healthy impulses
75 of 148
What happens with the ego?
Stregnthening of reality based ego functioning, widening its perceptions that it approves more of the id
76 of 148
What happens when there is a more humane super ego?
altering the contents of the superego so that it represents humane not punitive moral standards
77 of 148
According to Freud who is suitable for psychoanalysis?
Not individuals with psychosis, not individuals near or above the age of 50, reasonable degree of education, reliable character
78 of 148
How many sessions a week?
At least 4 sessions a week, 45 minutes each
79 of 148
What is the first Freudian technique?
Free association - allowing the mind to wander and reporting everything that comes to mind
80 of 148
What is the second freudian technique?
REsistance - anything that works against the process of therapy
81 of 148
What is the third freudian technique?
Interpretation - constructions or explanations of material revealed in free association
82 of 148
What is the fourth freudian techniques?
Transference, the repetition of earlier life situations in relation to the therapist
83 of 148
What is the final freudian technique?
The interpretation of unconscious material revealed through dreams
84 of 148
What is the definition of dream analysis?
Royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind
85 of 148
What are the functions of dreams?
Wish fulfilment, guardians of sleep
86 of 148
What does this mean?
Disguised hallucinatory fulfilments of repressed sexual infantile wishes
87 of 148
What two contents are there?
Manifest vs latent content
88 of 148
What is dream work?
Complex mental process of disguise involving condensation displacement, symbolism
89 of 148
What did the Wolfman dream?
I dreamt that it was night and that i was lying in my bed. Suddenly the window opened of its own accord, and i was terrified to see that some white wolves were sitting on the big walnut tree in front of the window, there were 6 or 7.
90 of 148
What are the current symptoms due to?
Unconscious repressed material that must be worked through
91 of 148
What do dreams do?
Give insight into repressed wishes based on a previous experience
92 of 148
At age of 11/2, sergei had witnessed what?
the primal scene - his parents having sexual intercourse
93 of 148
What desires were there?
Sexual gratification from father, castration fears
94 of 148
What would distortion through dream work do?
Reversals - rest motion, watched/watching, Condensations - white colour, symbolism - tails:castration
95 of 148
Who is the wolf?
the father
96 of 148
What is free association?
Christmas tree, wish fulfillment - presents; sexual satisfaction from father
97 of 148
What did Freud say psychoanalysis was?
A science, hypothesis testing, karl popper
98 of 148
What other problems were there with psychoanalysis?
Very limited sample. lack of causal explanations, failure to address social, cultural or political factors
99 of 148
What did Jung say about the levels of consciousness?
Consciousness: known and available to the individual, personal unconscious: memories and experiences that have been forgotten or repressed, Complexes (associations with strong emotional content
100 of 148
What is collective unconscious?
Images, potentialities, predispositions that have been inherited from our ancestors - never been in consciousness
101 of 148
What are archetypes?
Innate, identical psychic structures common to all
102 of 148
What is persona?
The mask work by an actor public personality
103 of 148
What is a shadow?
The dark side of our personality
104 of 148
What is anima?
Feminine side within male personality
105 of 148
what is animus?
Masculine side within female personality
106 of 148
What is self?
Central archetype, personality as a whole
107 of 148
What is psychic energy?
Libido and other motivating forces
108 of 148
What is opposition?
Flow of energy between 2 poles, tension and conflict arise from clash of opposites
109 of 148
What is compensation?
balance or adjust enrgy distributed through the psyche
110 of 148
What is transcendent function?
Synthesising process which can remove some of the separation between conscious and unconscious
111 of 148
What are 2 attitue types based on?
Habitual direction of an individual's interests: Extraversion and introversion
112 of 148
What are four function types?
Based on an individual's most differentiate function of psychological adaptation: thinking, feeling, sensation, intuition
113 of 148
Everyone has what?
All functions but 2 are well developed while other 2 remain mostly unconscious in the shadow
114 of 148
What are humans born with?
A programme for life - incorporated into the self
115 of 148
What are the four stages of life?
childhood, youth, middle age, extreme old age
116 of 148
What does the person become?
Differentiated as separate psychological individual, distinct from collective psychology
117 of 148
What is the inegration of?
Unconscious and conscious into whole self
118 of 148
What did Jungisan say about the medical model?
Not consistent with medical model, problem is always the whole person, never the symptom alone
119 of 148
What are hysteria?
Extreme extraversion, away from inner integrity, exaggerted concern with influence in social relationships
120 of 148
What are schizophrenia?
Extreme introversion, withdrawal of libido from reality world of fantasy
121 of 148
What did Jung say neurosis?
Conscious and unconscious imbalanced
122 of 148
What are forms?
Form of adaptation created as part of individuation
123 of 148
What is shrinking back?
Escape from a challenging life event which individual feels unequipped to meet
124 of 148
What did Freud say about neurosis development?
Easy childhood, backward looking reductie
125 of 148
What did Jung say about neurosis?
Any stage in life cycle, forward-looking adaptive
126 of 148
What is Jungs saying?
Suffering of a soul which has not found its meaning
127 of 148
What did Goals of therapy suggest?
Attaining specific goals, dealing with complexes strengthening consciousness
128 of 148
What is the person suppose to understand?
Own inner being and meaning of lives
129 of 148
When can it occur?
all stages of life
130 of 148
What are four factors of Jung's therapies?
Individuals, eyetoeye, 2/3 sessions W/k and break after 10 weeks
131 of 148
What isnt his therapy?
not a cure, better able to deal with life's challenges; better integration of conscious and unconscious
132 of 148
What are the four stages of therapeutic process?
Confressions - share secrets, elucidations - therapist interprets, education - new and adaptive habits, transformation - individuation, acceptance of self
133 of 148
What is analysis of transference?
Understand projections that take lace from client to therapist
134 of 148
What is active imagination?
Get in touch with unconscious material, may use dreams as a starting point
135 of 148
What is used?
allow unconscious to produce series of images
136 of 148
Like Freud, what did Jung give?
Importance to dreams
137 of 148
What did Jung say about dreams?
Dreams express, meaning of dream in manifest content, compensatory function, constructive - makes unconscious potential
138 of 148
What did Freud say about dreams?
Dreams disguise, meaning of dream in latent content, wish fulfilment, reductive -trace back to infantile experiences
139 of 148
What is amplification?
Elaboration and clarification of dream images to establish context, directed associations
140 of 148
What is interpretation?
Keep record of dreams and interpretations
141 of 148
What is assimilation?
Client and therapist make conscious sense of dreams, clients assent of therapist's interpretation
142 of 148
Does psychotherapy work?
Eysenck, found that 44% cured by psychoanalysis
143 of 148
What did Smith and glass suggest?
Average person receiving treatment is better off than 75% of untreated individuals
144 of 148
What are evidence based treatments?
Assumes we can classify mental disorders categorically, ensures that therapy offered has been shown to work
145 of 148
What did Leicsenring show?
Meta analysis of 6 RCTs comparing STPP with cognitive behavioural therapy.
146 of 148
What was shown as a result of STPP?
REdcution in depressive symptoms, reduction in general psychiatric symtpoms, improvement in social functioning
147 of 148
What was found?
No difference between CBt and STPP, no evidence that psychodynamic approaches more effective in treating specific mental disorders
148 of 148

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was asked?

Back

Children were told to play with a child who either had ADHD and no ADHD

Card 3

Front

What are the target effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the alternatives to medical model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the dimensional approach?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Psychodynamic Approach resources »