What is personality?
general of what you are, reflects characteristics, stems from persona (latin word for mask)
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what is Allport's definition of personality?
dynamic organisation inside person of psychophysical systems that create person's characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings
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what are theories?
conceptual tool for understanding certain specific phenomena
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what is the purpose of a theory?
to explain what is known, and predict new info or events
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what is the interplay between theory and research?
theory - suggests predictions for - research (quant and qual) - suggest changes in - theory...
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what are the steps involved in the scientific process?
observations - propose theory - testable hypothesis - conduct study to test it - draw concs
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what are implicit theories?
ideas about personality that are held by ordinary people (not based on formal theory)
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what is an example of an implicit theory?
implicit theory of intelligence - some think intelligence is fixed and due to genetics (entity lay theorists)
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how did Dweck formulate his theories?
observed children and their parents - implicit theory
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what are direct means self reports?
scales (assess a single aspect of personality), inventories (measure several distinct aspects of personality - big 5)
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what are indirect means self reports?
projective tests (Freud's inkblot), implicit assessment (hiding the purpose of tests and use inferences to see preferences etc)
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what is rating by others?
report by observers, ratings bu others (peers etc) - more objective
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what are the pros of observations of the self?
easy and direct, can provide valuable info about self
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what are the cons of observations of self?
memories may be biased, lack of self awareness
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what are the pros of observations by others?
avoids memory biases
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what are the cons of observations by others?
possibility of misinterpretation, some variables cannot be observed, need cooperation from 3rd party
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what is objective data?
measure of concrete reality that involves no interpretation (ie, counts of time a person touches another in an interpersonal interaction)
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what is subjective data?
measure that involves interpretation (evaluation of facial expressions for signs of hostility etc)
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what is the nomothetic approach to personality assessment?
involves comparisons with other indivs, research based on groups of people (ie, comparing people's scores on a test) - compares to norms
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what is the idiographic approach to personality assessment?
focusing on 1 indiv (intensive study of single indiv, clinical report about an unusual psychiatric patient etc) - can't generalise findings to others
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what is a case study?
intensive examination of single person, often in clinical studies - idiographic and subjective (ie, freud's little hans horse phobia)
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what are the advantages of a case study?
in depth knowledge, info pertains to normal life (relates to normal life of that p only though), context of discovery and verification
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what are the disadvantages of a case study?
very limited generalisability
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what is generalisability?
applicability of a conc to broad range of people
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when is generalisability best?
data from many people, data from different types of people (sample heterogeneity)
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what is statistical generalisability?
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what is scientific generalisability?
settings, times, places people
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what is questionnaire/survey method?
to obtain correlations among variables, nomothetic and subjective
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what is a correlation?
relationship in which values of 2 variables go together in meaningful way
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what is a variable?
dimension among which people differ
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what are the features of a correlation?
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what is statistical significance?
usually examines p values, index of believability or meaningfulness of relationship, suggests a relationship is unlikely to be the result of chance
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what is clinical/practical significance?
indicates that the observed relationship has meaningful, real world consequences
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what are the advantages of the questionnaire/survey method?
provides access to thoughts and experiences, often the only method available (practical reasons - can't assign personality, ethical reasons - can't get strong levels of some variables, ie anxiety etc), facilitates ease of administration and scoring,
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what are the limitations of questionnaire/survey method?
can't infer causation (directionality problem), third variable problem, memory bias, motivational bias - demand characteristics, yeasaying (acquiescence), nay saying, social desirability
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what is the experimental method?
nomothetic, objective, used to make inferences about causality, by creating a situation in which the researcher can control and manipulate differences in a variable and observe effects
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what are the characteristics of an experiment?
manipulation of variables, random assignment to conditions, exertion of experimental control, measurement of manipulation effects
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what is the independent variable?
variable the researcher manipulates, conceptual definition (ie,, aggressive thoughts), operational definition (ie playing violent video games), cause and effect relationship
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what is the dependent variable?
variable the researches measures, conceptual definition (ie hatred), operational definition (hot sauce assigned to other p), effect in cause and effect relationship
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what are the advantages of the experimental method?
can exercise a high degree of control, allows ability to rule out third variable explanations, allows regulation of temporal sequence of events, can infer causality
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what are the disadvantages of the experimental method?
often artificial situation, usually limited to short durations, manipulations must remain weak, some variables can't be manipulated, sometimes difficult to determine whether the manipulation was responsible for the effect, can't control all variables
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what is external validity?
outside the study, does the same thing happen in other settings?
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what is internal validity?
inside the study, was the research conducted correctly?
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before evaluating what are the 3 questions to ask?
what does the test measure? for what purposes is this test valid? is this test reliable?
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what must an excellent personality measure be?
valid, reliable, bias free, theoretically sound, research backed, clear in specifications about conditions, populations and cultures
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what is reliability?
consistency or repeatability of measurement, when measurement is repeated at another time or by another observer with similar results,
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what is internal reliability?
reflects consistency within set of items intended to measure the same construct, internal consistency index = cronbach's alpha
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what is inter-rater reliability?
using the same test on different participants
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what is test retest reliability?
testing same p's again at later date
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what is parallel forms reliability?
1st half of questions delivered in the morning for some and 2nd half later and vice versa
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what is validity?
accuracy of measurement - extent to which test measures what is supposed to measure
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what are the characteristics of validity?
grounded in research evidence, correlated with some standards
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what are the different types of validity?
construct, criterion, convergent, discriminant, face
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what is construct validity?
indicates a match between operational and conceptual definitions, most important type of validity, other types of validity help establish construct validity
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what is criterion/predictive validity?
examines how well a measure correlates with a standard of comparison, examines how well a measure predicts an appropriate outcome
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what is convergent validity?
indicates appropriate correlation with assessment devices presumed to measure the same construct, indicates appropriate correlation with assessment devices presumes to measure conceptually similar constructs
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what is discriminant validity?
indicates that scale doesn't correlate with other assessment devices presumed to measure conceptually dissimilar constructs
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what is face validity?
indicates that the item/scale measures what the researcher thinks it's supposed to measure
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what is the learning perspective?
personality consists of tendencies learned throughout life, much research been conducted on animals based on assumption that learning processes = universal
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what is the act frequency approach to personality measurement (behavioural perspective)
input - blackbox (unmeasurable, can't be seen, defense mech) - output
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what is classical conditioning?
pavlovian, response acquired by associating one stimulus with another
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what issues affect classical conditioning?
conditioned responses generally less intense that unconditioned response, greater frequency of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus pairings more likely conditioning will take place, is unconditioned stimulus v strong conditioning rapidly
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what is instrumental/operant conditioning?
reinforcement and punishment, mode of learning in which the frequency of responding is influenced by the consequences that are contingent upon a response
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what is reinforcement?
increasing the rate of responding
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what is punishment and extinction?
decreasing the rate of responding
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what is a primary reinforcer?
diminishes a biological need (food or water)
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what is a secondary reinforcer?
associated with primary reinforcer through classical conditioning (used to get primary reinforcers)
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what is shaping?
reinforcement of successive approximations of behaviour
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what is chaining?
one response produces or alters some of the variables that control another response (enforce each step in stages)
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what is discrimination learning?
learning to respond differentially, depending on environmental stimuli (chicken reinforced for pecking the red chips not the blue one)
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what is generalisation?
responding to stimuli that are similar to (but not identical) the stimuli present during training
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what is fixed ratio reinforcement?
get reward for pressing button times every time
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what is variable ratio schedule?
completely random - press button 7 times then get reward, then next time 3, then next 20 etc - most effective
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fixed interval schedule?
getting paid at end of every month
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variable interval schedule?
rewarded after various amounts of time
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what is emotional conditioning?
situations of classical conditioning in which conditioned response is an emotional reaction, gives rise to likes, dislikes, preferences, biases, associations of neutral stimuli with events that reflexively cause good or bad feelings (little albert)
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what is social reinforcement?
less focus on physical needs in reinforcement on human behaviour, but rather effects of smiles, hugs, praise, approval, love, people most affected by social reinforcement
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what is time out?
procedure or environment in which no reinforcements are given in an effort to extinguish unwanted behaviour (time in should be rewarding, time out punishing)
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what is vicarious reinforcement?
seeing a person reinforced for a behaviour increases tendency to do similar behaviour etc, permits trial and error processes that preserve self esteem, allow focus on learning rather than on details of behaving, relies on dependence of expectancies
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what is outcome expectancy?
evaluation of whether a behaviour will lead to a desired outcome
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what is behaviour determined by?
expectancy, incentive (value of desired outcome)
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what is observational learning?
acquisition of ability by watching the behaviour of another model
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what are the requirements for observational learning?
attention (partic to correct aspects of models behaviour), retention (representations in memory - imaginal and verbal coding), production competency (possession of skills required to carry out behaviour - influenced by prior skills and knowledge)
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what is imaginal coding?
creating images and mental pics
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what is visual coding?
creating a description
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what is triadic reciprocal determinism?
human action = result of continuous interaction between behaviour (complexity, duration, skill), environment (situation, role models, relationships), personal factors (cognition, self efficacy, motives)
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who came up with triadic reciprocal determinism?
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what are efficacy expectancies?
perceived ability to carry out desired action (self efficacy), one must be confident in ability to do something
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what contributes to self efficacy?
mastery experiences, physical/emotional states, social modelling, social persuasion
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what are internal factors in self regulation?
self observation, judgemental process, self-reaction
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what is self regulation through moral agency?
redefine behaviour, disregard or distort consequences of behaviour, dehumanise/blame victims, displace/diffuse responsibility
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what factors influence performance?
observed rewards (increase probability of performance), observed punishment (decreases prob of performance)
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what are phobias?
intense irrational fears, emotional conditioning, have severe debilitating effects on ones daily life
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how are phobias learned?
direct contact, inappropriate generalisation, observational experiences
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how is aggression learned?
observation of others, direct experiences with positive and negative reinforcements, training/instruction, bizarre beliefs, vicarious reinforcement, observational learning, desensitisation
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what is desensitisation?
extinguishing negative emotional reponses to aggression and violence
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what are some real life applications of behavioural techniques?
therapy and education - behaviour modification, task analysis, token economies
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what are some contributions of learning theories?
falsifiability (arose from experimental research), constructs precisely defined and theory is well organised, practicality (behaviour therapy techniques effective - esp for autistic kids), behaviour tech effective (training animals), parsimonious
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what are some limitations of learning theories?
oversimplification (emphasised study of lab animals), experiments often allow for limited behavioural options, seldom applic to adults, may not fully explain complex real life phenom, ignores indiv diffs, don't explain personality but behaviour
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what are the basic themes of the psychoanalytic perspective?
conflict between aspects of personality, defense mechanisms to manage threat, human experience suffused lust, aggression, sexuality and death
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what is the conscious level?
contains elements about which a person is currently aware, contents can be articulated verbally, contents can be thought about in rational/logical manner
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what is the preconscious level?
represents elements in ordinary memory (those outside of current attention), contents easily brought to current awareness
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what is the unconscious level?
elements of mind actively kept from conscious, repository for images, feelings, ideas associated w/ anxiety. fear pain, contents can't be brought to conscious directly but can enter awareness in distorted forms (dreams), can have dynamic influence
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how much of brain activities are unconscious?
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which of the 3 levels did Freud contribute?
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what is the topographical model?
mind organised in to 3 levels of functioning - conscious, preconscious, unconscious
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what is the structural model?
complements of topographical model, describes 3 components of personality functioning - id, ego, superego
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what is the id?
original part of personality present at birth, embodies inherited, instinctive, primitive aspects of personality, tied to biology, operates entirely in unconscious, engine, conforms to pleasure principle
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what is the pleasure principle?
asserts true aspect of life is immediate satisfaction of all needs, gives no consideration to risk, environments, problems etc, unmet needs result in state of aversive tension
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what is the mechanism for discharge of tension in pleasure principle?
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what are people like if they have a strong id?
want things immediately, wreckless
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what is the primary process?
primary way for id to satisfy needs, formation of mental image of desired object and activity that would meet need, act of forming such as image = wish fulfillment
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what is an example of primary process?
need = hunger, image = juicy burger
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what are the problems with primary process?
can't distinguish between objective and subjective states if have strong id, doesn't care how needs are met, can be irrational, reckless, immoral
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what is the ego?
developed a bit later, evolves out of id as id functions can't deal effectively w/ objective reality, operates primarily at conscious and pre (sometimes un), operates according to reality principle, no moral sense - wants to fulfill needs given
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what is the reality principle?
introduces sense of rationality and logic in to personality functioning, idea behaviour governed by external, objective world, focus on effectively expressing id impulses by taking in to account the external world
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what is the secondary process?
ego mechanism for matching tension and producing need to a real object, finding match between image of needed object and actual object, refers to processes of higher order thought called reality testing (prob solving etc)
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what are the problems with the secondary process?
built in opportunity for conflict between id and ego
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what is the superego?
embodiment of parental and societal values, arises from complex feeling resulting from relationship with parents, introjection, operates on all levels of consciousness
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what results in love and affection in superego?
doing what parents think is right
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what results in punishment and disapproval in superego?
avoiding what parents think is wrong
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what is introjection?
process of incorporating values from external source (mostly parents, sometimes society)
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what are the components of the superego?
ego ideal (wanting to do something good), conscience (avoid doing bad behaviour)
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what is ego-ideal?
consists of rules about bad and prohibited behaviour and standards of excellence, conforming behaviour results in feelings of pride and worthiness
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what is conscience?
consists of rules about bad and prohibited behaviour, non conforming behaviour results in feelings of guilt and shame
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what are the goals of the superego?
inhibit any id impulse that would cause disapproval from parents, force ego to act morally rather than rationally, guide person toward perfection in thought, word and behaviour
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what is a problem with the superego?
perfectionism not realistic
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what is ego strength?
ability to function effectively, despite conflicting forces - finding way to release tension (id demand) immediately in way that is socially acceptable (superego demand) and realistic (external environment)
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what does little ego strength result in?
torn among conflicting pressure
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what does more ego strength result in?
managing pressures without problems
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what does too much ego strength result in?
very rational and very efficient but may be boring, cold or distant
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what are the basic assumptions of the drives of personality?
people = complex energy systems, energy used in psyc work is released through bio processes, these process which operate through the id = the drives
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what are the 2 elements to the drives?
bio need state, psyc representation
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what is the life/sexual drive (eros)?
concerned with survival, reproduction, pleasure (ie, hunger and pain avoidance, sex). energy resulting from eros = libido
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what are the death drives (thanatos?)
goal of all life = death, usually held back by eros, apoptosis = programmed cellular suicide, redirected harm toward self onto other may represent foundation of aggression
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what is catharsis?
release of tension resulting from unmet drive
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what are the implications for aggressive energy?
overcontrolled agression - exaggerate ego and superego processing in which there is a strong inhibition against aggression, mixed effects on reduction of arousal following aggressive acts, mixed finding on effect of future aggression
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what are the parts of intrapsychic conflict?
energy hypothesis, anxiety, defense mechanisms, sublimation, empirical studies of defenses
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what is the energy hypothesis?
repression requires energy, and the more energy tied up in the conflict, the less energy is available for dealing with current reality
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what is anxiety?
aversive inner motivation state, freud saw as warning signal to ego
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what are the different types of anxiety?
reality (fear of something real in world), neurotic (fear of punishment resulting from id impulses getting out of control), moral (fear of violating moral/ethical codes arising from superego)
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what are the different responses to anxiety?
increase in ration problem orienting coping - conscious activity to deal with threat (best with reality), activate defense mechs - tactics developed by ego, can operate unconsciously (all distort, transform or falsify reality in some way)
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what are the different defense mechanisms?
repression, denial, projection, rationalisation, intellectualisation, displacement, sublimation
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what is repression?
unconscious act of forcing something out of consciousness
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what is suppression?
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what is repression important in?
restraining id impulses, applies to painful or upsetting info. not always all or nothing - can have partial repression
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what is denial?
refusal to believe an event took place or a condition exists, generally deals with threats that originate outside the dynamics of the mind, effective at keeping anxiety at bay but requires constant psychic energy
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what is projection?
ascription of unacceptable impulses, desires or qualities to someone else, serves to express the ids desire, thus releasing energy required to suppress it, masks expression of impulse in way that is not recognised by ego or superego (protection)
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what is rationalisation?
finding a reason/excuse for a behaviour done for unacceptable reasons, rationalisation after a failure maintains self esteem, common response to success and failure experiences (fundamental attribution error)
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what is intellectualisation?
thinking in a cold, analytical or detached way about things that normally evoke distress, allows dissociation of thought from feelings, suggests intellectual part of an idea can exist in the conscious mind, while emotional quality of the idea unconsc
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which defense mechanisms are considered less neurotic, and more adaptive that others?
displacement and sublimation
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what is displacement?
shifts an impulse from one target to another - new target less threatening so anxiety reduced (scapegoating)
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what is sublimation?
transforms impulse in to more socially acceptable form, expressed impulse more acceptable so anxiety reduced (most mature defense mech)
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what are freud's 2 drives in sublimation?
sex and aggression
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what can freuds drives be expressed in?
art (nude) and occupation (surgeon)
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what is the least popular way to assess defense mechanisms?
self report measure of defense mech inventory - out of awareness (unconscious)
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what are projective assessment techniques for defense mechs?
common formal approaches to assessing unconscious processes. projective hypothesis: provide people w/ ambiguous, unstructured stimuli and they will apply projection in their interpretations of what they see
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what is an example of projective assessment technique?
rorschach inkblot test - chosen for ability to evoke different responses from different psychiatric patients
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what is personality development?
sequential progression through stages, each stage characterised by crisis, adult personality influenced by how crises are resolved during each stage, 5 psychosexual stages
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what are the 5 psychosexual stages?
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
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what is the oral stage?
birth - 18 months, mouth is source of tension reduction, crisis = being weaned from mum
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what are the 2 phases in the oral stage?
oral incorporative (dependency, gullibility, jealousy) and oral sadistic (verbal aggressiveness)
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what are oral personalities?
preoccupied with food and drink, when stress reduce tension through oral activities (smoking, nail biting), when angry engage in verbal aggression
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what is the anal stage?
18 months - 3 year, anus = source of pleasure from stimulation that results from defecation, crisis = toilet training
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what is the good orientation to toilet training?
praise for successful elimination at desired time and place, result = value in producing things by whatever means poss, basis for adult productivity and creativity
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what is the bad orientation to toilet training?
punishment and ridicule for failures, if child reacts with rebellion = anal expulsive traits (messy, cruel, destructive, hostile). if child reacts by withholding = anal retentive (rigid, obsessive, stingy, obstinacy, orderliness)
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what is the phallic stage?
3 - 5 years, genitals become source of pleasure, crisis = attraction toward opposite sex parent
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what happens in the phallic stage for boys?
attracted to mum so want to replace father (oedipus complex), fears retaliation on part of father (castration anxiety), repress feelings toward mother and begins to identify with father, identification with father gives rise to superego
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what happens in the phallic stage for girls?
attracted to father abandons love for mother (electra complex), wants father because possesses penis (penis envy), repress feelings toward father and begin to identify with mum, identification with mum gives rise to superego
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what is the latency period?
6 years - early teens, period of relative calm, no new developmental conflicts, attention focused on other pursuits (intellectual/social)
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what is the genital stage?
late adolescence - adulthood, libidinal energy organised around genitals, focus on mutual sexual gratification, develop ability to share in warm and caring relationships and have concern for others welfare, demonstrate greater control over impulses
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what are the genital characters in the genital stage?
vanity, appearance, attention
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what are some problems with freuds psychosexual stages?
eysenck and others think latency period is important time of physical, cog, social and emotional development, no clear support for predicted outcomes if all stage challenges are not met, biased methods and sampling, gender diffs in morality no suppor
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what is unconscious motivation in everyday life?
not random but arises from impulses/urges in unconscious, error of memory, word mix ups, and accidents reflect our unconscious
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what are some types of unconscious motivation?
forgetting = repression, freudian slips = unsuccessful repression (id overpowering)
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what did freud assume about dreams?
royal road to unconscious, manifest content (actual sensory images - what dreams about), latent content = source of manifest content (meaning underlying dream)
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what is freuds theory of humour?
benevolent superego allowed a light and comforting type of humour, harsh superego creating biting and sarcastic, v harsh suppressed humour altogether
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what are some contributions of freuds theory?
pioneer to explore new areas, creative development of dream analysis, many constructs now widely used (libido, denial, catharsis), huge influence on neo freudians
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what are some limitations of freuds theory?
controversial (sex), didn't understand women (lacking in moral character to freud), heavy reliance on small number of potentially biased case studies of disturbed indivs, long process of therapy, too deterministic, difficult to test empirically
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what is the role of the ego in POST freudian theory?
ego emerges from and is largely shaped by society and culture
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what is the epigenetic principle?
ego grows as our organs do, developing sequentially, with certain changes arising at particular time (can't skip stages)
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what is an overview of post freudian theories of personality?
interpersonal (freud was intra), extended infantile development, life cycle approach, emphasis on social and historical influences, stages of development characterised by psychosocial struggle
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what is kohut (self psychology)?
relationships create structure for self, early self characterised by 2 narcissistic needs: exhibit grandiose self, acquire idealised image of parents. responding to childs needs in empathetic accepting way esablishes sense of self
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what is the process of development of the self in kohut?
initial sense of self = grandiose, eventually evolves in to ambition and self esteem, love illustrates adult form of mirroring - people represent self objects for each other and demonstrate mutual mirroring
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what are object relation theories?
primary tasks in life focus on relations with others, many object relation theories overlap - patterns of relating to others established in early childhood, patters occur throughout life
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what are the differences between freudian and object relation theories?
relates to freuds instinct theory but differs: emphasises consistent patterns of interpersonal relationships, stresses intimacy and nurturing, relatedness as prime motive of human behaviour
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what is an overview of object relation theories?
built on observations of young kids, infants drives driven by objects (breasts), role of fantasy in interpersonal relationships, drives have object, bonds with others important in own right, basic ego function and personality main focus
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what is the 1st stage in mahler's object relation theory?
during 1st 3 years of infants lives need to change from security to autonomy so need to pass through 3 major stages: normal autism, normal symbiosis, separation individuation
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what is normal autism?
birth to 3-4 weeks, can't tell who mum is, anyone can be caregiver
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what is normal symbiosis?
4th week to 5th month, cog development becomes more mature so start to recognise mum - identify as important figure in life
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what is separation individuation?
5th-36th month, need to be independent
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what is the 2nd stage in mahler's theory?
fusion or symbiosis with mother - differentiation between self and mother doesn't exist
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what is the 3rd stage in mahlers theory?
process of separation individuation - need is in conflict with need to be taken care of, if process goes to fast = separation anxiety, at age 3 develop stable representation of mother
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what does mahler's theory lead to?
patterns form the core of adult patterns of relationships
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what is bowlbys attachment theory?
many infant behaviours serve bio purpose of keeping infant in close proximity to mother. when caregivers responsive and dependable, infant develops sense of security. during devlopment, child builds working models of self and others based on caregive
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what is the origin of the attachment theory?
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what are the 3 fundamental assumptions to bowlbys attachment theory?
caregiver must create secure base of child, bonding relationship becomes internalised, internalised bonding relationships acts as model for future relationships
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what is attachment?
basic element of human nature involving an emotional connection to others
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what are the attachment theory basics?
infant trust = confidence, confidence = developmental process throughout lifespan, internal working model created (not just for survival)
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what is infant attachment?
develops as mother responds to infants needs and provides dependable base from which the infant can explore the world and retreat from threat
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what is a secure attachment?
normal distress at mothers departure and happy enthusiasm as return
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what is insecure ambivalent attachment?
unusually upset at departure, approach, rejection and anger at return
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what is insecure avoidant attachment?
calm at departure, avoidance and rejection at return
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what are later relationships like for secure people?
more happy, friendly, trusting, longer lasting, mental model of love = its real and it stays
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what are the relationships like of avoidant people?
less accepting of lovers imperfections, mental model of love = cynical, romantic love doesn't last
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what are the relationships like of ambivalent people?
obsessive, preoccupied, extremes of emotions, jealousy, love at first sight. mental model of love = falling in love easy but doesn't last
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what are some other problems of avoidant people?
socialise less at work, greater desire to keep busy, seek less support during stress, provide less support to stressed partners, less responsive caregiving, greater use of distance coping
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what are some other problems of ambivalent people?
unhappiness with job recognition and security, higher levels of compulsive caregiving, higher levels of self criticism and wishful thinking coping
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what is eriksons psychosocial development?
life span, each stage characterised by central conflict around which growth potential and vulnerability high
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what are the central themes in eriksons psychosocial theory?
ego identity and its development is critically important - develops from transactions with social reality, changes in response to events in social environment. competency and personal adequacy - competency key motivator of behaviour, results from age
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what happens in infancy psychosocial stage?
age 1, oral-sensory mode, modes of incorporation (receiving and accepting), basic trust vs mistrust, hope and drive = basic strength of infancy
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what happens in the early childhood psychosocial stage?
age 2-3, anal-urethral-muscular mode, autonomy vs shame and doubt, willpower and self control = basic strength
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what happens in the preschool/play age psychosocial stage?
3-5, genital-locomotor mode, initiative vs guilt, purpose and direction = basic strength
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what happens in the school age psychosocial stage?
5-11, latency, industry vs inferiority, competence and method = basic strength
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what happens in the young adulthood psychosocial stage?
20-40, genitality, intimacy vs isolation, love = basic strength
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what happens in adolescence psychosocial stage?
12-20, puberty, initiative vs identity confusion, fidelity vs devotion = basic strength
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what happens in adulthood psychosocial stage?
40-60, procreativity, generativity vs stagnation, care and production = basic strength
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what happens in old age psychosocial stage?
60+, generalised sensuality, integrity vs despair, wisdom = basic strength
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what is erikson's link to other psychosocial theories?
issues of trust permeate all theories - object relation theories imply sense of trust required for investment of energy in others, trust = key issue in secure attachment
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what are some contributions of post freudiant theories?
expanded on freud in social and cultural directions, helped determine how past relationships w/ so might contribute to present concerns, emphasised pos emotions, derived from direct work with kids, influence kid workers, implications for social polic
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what are some limitations of post freudian theories?
explained personality less thoroughly, underestimated bio bases (autism etc), underemphasised degree to which humans can self repair, each theory looks at one aspect only, vague and unfalsifiable, hard to test empirically, psychotherapy focuses onkid
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what are some counterexamples of post freudian theories in non western societies?
uganda - child rearing duties more evenly spread among broader groups of people, so not applicable to all societies
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Other cards in this set
what is Allport's definition of personality?
dynamic organisation inside person of psychophysical systems that create person's characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings
what are theories?
what is the purpose of a theory?
what is the interplay between theory and research?