international relations

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  • Created by: Connor
  • Created on: 22-04-13 18:46

Confrences

The Theran conference 1943: Britian and the USA would invade France in May 1944. The soviet union would decalre war on Japan once Germany was defeated. A united nations organisation was to be set up

The Yalta conference 1945: The allies agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones and would be occupied by one of the Allies. The USSR would decalre war on Japan 3 months after the war with Germany.

The potsdam conference 1945: Germany was to be de militrised. All ships were to be given tothe allies. The Nazi party will be dissolved and war criminals would be put on trial

Disagreements as Potsdam: The US tried to force the USSR to allow free election in the countries of eastern europe

Stalin was angry because the US had not told him about the development of the atomic bomb

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Marshall aid, the Truman Doctrine, Cominform and C

Truman intended that Marshall aid would be made avaliable to all the countries in Europe. But in fact only countires in the west accepted it

In February the British government informed the US that it could no longer support Greece and the rebels. The US stepped in with a offer of $400,000,000 known as the Truman doctrine. He offered ti help any country that was being threatened either with or without its border

The US believed that the Soviet Union was trying to spread communism through the east. Truman wanted to help the countries of Europe to recover from WW2

Marshall plan put the ideas of Trumans into effect. truman offered $13.74 billion of american money to all european countries, this was to rebuild from after the war

Cominform 1947: This was established in Sepetember 1944. Its purposes was to co-oridante the activities of communist parties. Any communist state or party which dad notm follow the USSR was expelled from the organisation

Comecon 1949: Stalin set up a soviet version of Marshall aid the council for mutal economic assistance.

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Warsaw pact and Hugarian uprising

The warsaw pact was a militiry alliance of the communist countries of eastern europe. The pact was set up in 1955 in responce to the admission of west Germany.

The pact increased the infulence of the Soviet union in eatsern europe and led to more soviet troops being stationed

Hungarian uprising: The threat was only removed only after soviet troops invaded Hungary. Krushchev had made his secret speech which critisied Stalin

In october 1956 fighting broke out between Hungarians and soviet troops. Nagy became the prime minister, this new parliment involved non-communist

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The Berlin Blockade and NATO

Stalin ordered that all traffic between west Germany and west Berlin should be stopped

He prevented road, canal and rail routes but did not prevent by air

The solution was to fly supplies to the people of West Berlin

The Berlin airlift lasted 10 months, and one plane landed every 90 seconds in west Berlin

The main reason for the blockade was because the USA and Britian made it clear they could rebuild the economy in their zones

The USA, Britian and France joined together in Trizonia

Most of the people living in soviet Germany moved to the other 3 zones

NATO was set up during the Berlin blockade

The members of NATO made it clear that they would attack if any territory of NATO was attacked

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Cuba

In 1959 Fidel Casto seized power in Cuba, Casro then nationalised all buisnesses

In 1960 the Soviet agreed to buy 1,000,000 million tonnes of sugar,Cuba then became communist

The US CIA trained 1,500 cuban exiles, they landed in the bay of pigs but were met by Castro's

The USSR became to give more aid to Cuba, a US spy plane took photographs of a missile base

Krushchev said if the US would leave Cuba alone they would destory the base

The 2 countries agreed on a hotline telephone to talk directly to eachother

They signed the nuclear test ban treaty which banned all nuclear tests, except underground

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The Berlin Wall

About 4 million east germans moved to West Germany

Krushchev did no want a group in the iron curtain

The soviety Union become convienced that the west was used for spyimg

The construction of the wall started on August 1961 and was gaurded day and night

After the construction a number of refugees dropped when entering west Germany and Berlin

Life was domimated by the communist party and newspapers could only report offical news

People were subject to the secret police and consumer goods were limited and often poor quality

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Czechoslovakia: The Prague spring

Life in Czechoslovakia was very similar to any other country in eastern europe

The Czech communist party had control of public life, armed forces, media and education

In 1965, Novotony tried to improve the economy, this failed to bring any improvements

Dubeck openly challenged the Czech leader Novotony and invited Brezhnev to Prague

Novotny was replaced by Dubeck on the 5th of January

Socialism with a human was was politcal refrom whcih would reuslt in a new form of democratic socialism

A reduction in powers of the secret police, the abolition of censorship and freedom of speech

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Czechoslovakia: The Prague spring 2

In july 1968 Dubceck was summoned to attend conferences in Warsaw and Moscow but refused

On the 20th of August 200,000 Warsaw pact troops and 1000s of tanks poured into Czech

On the 27th of August Dubcek announced all the reforms had been stopped temporay soviet militiry occupation was announced

The soviet invasion had consequences for the soviet Union and its stattelite states

On the 16th of January a Czech student set himself on fire to protest at the soviet occupation

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Brezhnev Doctrine and the Helsinki agreements

The Brezhnev doctrine declared that the Soveit Union had the right to intervene in any neighbouring country

He used this for a reason behind Czechoslovakia, this was a bases for the invasion of Afghanistan

The Helsinki agreements agreed that the signotories guarenteed and they would respect human rights and fundumental freedom

Including the freedom of thought, conciense, religion or belife for all without distinction as to race, sex or religion

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The soviet invasion Afghansitan

On christmas day 1979, Soviet forces enterted Afghan, the president Amin was executed and commuism was set up

Brezhnev announced that the Soviet Union had responed to an urgent requst, Kamin became the new president

But in September Tarakai, the Marxist presdient was murdered

The Soveit Union feared that this would lead to a collapse of the Marxist government and intended the B. Doctrine

There were an increasing opposition to the war from many people inside the Soviet Union

The cost of the war was colosal and played a significant part in the bankruptcy of the Soviet Union

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The olympic boycotts and the role of Ronald Reagan

President carter announced that the USA would boycott the Moscw games if the Soviet failed to withdraw troops from Afghanistan

In all 62 countries refused to participate and some of those who boycotted held the liberty bell classics

In 1984 Chernenko leader of the USSR announced the Soviet boycott of the Los Angeles olympics

Reagan became president in 1981, he heated the Soviet Union he called it the evil empire

In 1981 talks on intermidate range missiles began, Reagan offered the 'zero option', both sides would dismantle weapons in Europe

In 1982 strategic arms reudction talk began, in 1983 Reagan ordered US forces to land in Grenada to crush communism

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The olympic boycotts and the role of Ronald Reagan

President carter announced that the USA would boycott the Moscw games if the Soviet failed to withdraw troops from Afghanistan

In all 62 countries refused to participate and some of those who boycotted held the liberty bell classics

In 1984 Chernenko leader of the USSR announced the Soviet boycott of the Los Angeles olympics

Reagan became president in 1981, he heated the Soviet Union he called it the evil empire

In 1981 talks on intermidate range missiles began, Reagan offered the 'zero option', both sides would dismantle weapons in Europe

In 1982 strategic arms reudction talk began, in 1983 Reagan ordered US forces to land in Grenada to crush communism

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Collapse of the cold war and Gorbachev

In 1983 Reagan announced 'star wars' this was a plan to shoot down soviet missiles using lasers in space

This was not a serious preposition in 1983, but it had the effect of putting pressure on soviet leaders

Perestrokia referred to economic restructing in the Soviet Union

Glasnot referred to a new sense of openess both within the Soviet Union and also with the west

For forty years it had supported communist regimes through comecon, aslo Cuba relied for aid

Thespace programme had been bery ambitious a very expensive

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End of the cold war

By the late 1980's Gorbachev was not prepared to use the force to try and keep the countries under control

In September 1989, Hungary opened its borders with Austria, massive numbers of refugees began to flood in the west

When Gorbachev visited east Germany in October 1989 he indicated that he would no longer interfear with the country no more

East Germanys began to attack the wall and it was dismanteled on the 9th of Novemeber

The communist governments of Czechoslovkia and Bulgaria both resigned in 1989, Soviet troops were withdrawn from baltic states

Gorbachev met George Bush and they decleared that the cold war was over

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Cominform and Comecon

Cominform 1947: This was established in Sepetember 1944. Its purposes was to co-oridante the activities of communist parties. Any communist state or party which dad notm follow the USSR was expelled from the organisation
Comecon 1949: Stalin set up a soviet version of Marshall aid the council for mutal economic assistance.

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