Cold War 1945-1968

When was the Yalta Conference?
February 1945
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Which leaders attended the Yalta Conference?
Winston Churchill, Franklin D Roosevelt, Stalin
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What did the US and Britain want?
Foundation of the UN
Long term cooperation of the USSR
No sphere of influence
Reconstruction of Germany
Creation of the World Bank and IMF
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What did Stalin want?
USSR wanted to control its own destiny
Cooperation with Anglo-Americans
Sphere of influence in Eastern Europe
Keep Germany weak
Reparations from Germany to rebuild the USSR
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What was agreed at the Yalta Conference?
Germany would be divided into four zones, USA, Britain, USSR and France, Berlin also divided
UN would be formally ratified
USSR gain land from Poland
Declaration of liberated Europe created
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When and what is the Percentage agreement?
1944, this was an agreement between Britain and the USSR about control of predominance in Eastern European state.
e.g. Romania the USSR would have 90%, Greece Britain would have 90%, Hungary shared 50/50
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Why was there a deterioration in relationships after Yalta?
Britain and the US interpreted the Declaration on Liberated Europe differently to the USSR, and how it was applied to Poland
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When was the Potsdam Conference?
July-August 1945
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What was agreed at Potsdam?
Germany was to be completely disarmed and demilitarised
De-nazification was to be carried out
Freedom of speech and press and tolerance of religion
Germany was to become a single economic unit
USSR was to receive reparations from its own zone and 25% from
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When was Kennan's Long Telegram?
February 1946
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When was the Iron Curtain Speech delivered?
March 1946
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What was the impact of the Long Telegram?
It warned the US that it needed to be tougher on the USSR and not remain Isolated with its allies
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What impact did the Iron Curtain Speech have?
This speech had more of an impact on Stalin than it did with the Allies. For Stalin this was considered an assault on Soviet ideologies, and it made it clear to Stalin that Britain and the USA were working together to attack the USSR
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When was the Paris Peace Conference, and what did it do?
1946, France, the USSR, USA and the UK met to draw up peace treaties for the defeated European powers in WWII. All apart from Germany and Austria had agreements met, which had ant fascist, and territorial requirements
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When did the US drop the atomic bomb on Japan?
August 1945
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When did the Communists win the Polish elections?
June 1946
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When did the Communists win the Bulgarian elections?
October 1946
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When did the Communists win the Romanian elections?
November 1946
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When was Bizonia created?
January 1947
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When was the Truman Doctrine?
March 1947
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What was the Truman Doctrine?
Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.
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When was the Marshall Plan introduced?
June 1947
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What was the Marshall Plan
European Recovery Program (ERP), aid in money and goods to help revive European countries, with a condition that a percentage of the money was spent on American goods
$13.5 billion given to 16 countries in 5 years Britain being the largest 'taker'
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When was Cominform created?
September 1947
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Why was Cominform created?
It was a bloc of countries within the USSR's sphere of influence and was in retaliation to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, it was just making the communist movement more unified
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When do the communists take control of Czechoslovakia?
June 1948
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When was the Deutschmark introduced into Bizonia?
June 1948
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When did Bizonia form into West Germany
June 1948, a new constitution was written.
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When did the Berlin Blockade begin
24 June 1948, one day after the introduction of the Deutschmark in West Germany
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What took place and what was the result of the Berlin Blockade
Roads and Railways were blocked by Stalin for the allies to gain access to Berlin, so air bridges were opened to keep supplies going to West Berlin.
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When was East Germany created
March 1949
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When was NATO formed
April 1949
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What was the USSR's position on the formation of NATO
The Soviet ambassador to the US described NATO as an aggressive organization to pressure states into complying with the interests of Britain and the US
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When did the USSR test its first atomic weapon
August 1949
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What was the US's position on Japan following the was?
Focusing on rebuilding Japan rather than punishing it.
- Balanced budget
- Wage Controls
- New Tax System
- Regulations on Trade
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When does the Chinese Communist Party announce allegiance to the USSR
June 1949
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When did the FRG join the Council of Europe
November 1949
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When was the Strategic Perimeter suggested
January 1950
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When did Stalin agree to provide North Korea with military equipment?
February 1950
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When was NSC-68 presented publicly?
April 1950
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What was the purpose for NSC-68?
Advising the US government to rapidly increase its size of conventional forces and their nuclear arsenal as well as developing the hydrogen bomb
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When does North Korea invades South Korea?
June 1950
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When does China join the North Korea in the war against South Korea?
October 1950
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Why did China join the Korean war?
The US pushed the North Koreans up to the Chinese border which China saw as a threat.
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When was the San Francisco Peace Treaty?
September 1951
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What was agreed in the San Francisco Treaty?
- Recognise the full sovereignty of the Japanese people
- Force Japan to renounce any claims to territories
The US was able to:
- Unrestricted use of military bases in Japan
- The right to veto Japan offering military bases to other states
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When does Eisenhower become President?
January 1953
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When does Stalin die?
March 1953
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When does the Korean War end?
July 1953
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Massive Retaliation Strategy announced
July 1954
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When did the Geneva Conference about Vietnam take place
July 1954
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When was SEATO established?
September 1954
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What was the purpose SEATO?
Another protection alliance but was countries from Europe Asia and America
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What was McCarthyism?
Following a growing mood of anti-communism. A committee called the House of Un-American Activities Committee, would investigate the patriotism and political affiliation of Hollywood filmmakers. McCarthy pressured Truman to tighten their anti-communist pol
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When did McCarthy claim that reds had infiltrated the US Army
September 1954
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When did West Germany join NATO
May 1955
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When was the Warsaw Pact set up?
May 1955
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When was the Austrian State Treaty?
May 1955
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When was the Geneva Summit?
September 1955
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What was so significant about the Geneva Summit?
It wasn't significant because of practical outcome, but that it signalled the beginning of dialogue between the two superpowers.
Open Skies Agreement
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When was Khrushchev's Secret Speech?
February 1956
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When was the Polish Uprising?
June-October 1956
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When was the Hungarian Uprising?
October-November 1956
4,000 died
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When did the USSR develop the first ICBM?
July 1957
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When was Sputnik Launch?
October 1957
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When was the Gaiter Report?
November 1958
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When was the Berlin Ultimatum?
November 1958
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What was the Berlin Ultimatum?
Delivered by Khrushchev, stating that as Berlin
was in East Germany Western Allies should retreat from Berlin
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When was the Batista Regime overthrown by Castro?
January 1959
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When were the Camp David talks?
September 1959
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When did the USSR indirectly support India in a border dispute with China?
September 1959
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When was economic and military aid offered to Cuba?
February 1960
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When was the U2 incident?
May 1960
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What happened with the U2 incident?
The USSR shot down a U2 spy plane, which gave the US info to suggest the USSR had been inflating the amount of war heads it had. The US refused to apologise and led to Khrushchev walking out on the Paris Summit in 1960
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When does Khrushchev recall Soviet technology experts from China
July 1960
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When was the NFL(Vietcong) in Vietnam created?
December 1960
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When does Kennedy become President
January 1961
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When does Gagarin become the first man in space?
April 1961
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When was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
April 1961
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When was the Construction of the Berlin Wall?
August 1961
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When was Operation Mongoose?
November 1961
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What was Operation Mongoose?
An extensive campaign of covert operations within Cuba to overthrow the Castro regime by the CIA
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When was President Diem assassinated?
November 1963
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When was the Buddhist crisis?
May-November 1963
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When was introduction of Strategic Hamlet in Vietnam?
March 1962
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When was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
October 1962, 13 days
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When was the Ich Bin Ein Berliner speech?
June 1963
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When was the Hotline created?
June 1963
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When do talks between China and the USSR break down?
July 1963
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Moscow Test Ban Treaty
August 1963
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When was JFK assassinated
November 1963
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When does Lyndon B. Johnson made President
November 1963
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When does China calls for the return of territory occupied by the USSR in Siberia
March 1964
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When was Gulf of Tonkin resolution?
August 1964
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When does Khrushchev get removed from office and replaced with Brezhnev?
October 1964
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When does China test their first Nuclear bomb
October 1964
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When was the Malinovsky incident
November 1964
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When was operation Rolling Thunder?
May 1965
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What was the Gulf of Tonkin resolution?
Was when Congress gave Johnson a blank cheque to fund the Vietnam war, and was when the US officially sent troops to Vietnam
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When was the Battle of la Drang Valley in Vietnam?
November 1965
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What was significant about the Battle of la Drang Valley
It was the first battle between the US army and the North Vietnamese army
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When does the cultural revolution in China begin?
May 1966
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When does the USSR place troops in Mongolia
and Kazakhstan?
February 1967
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When does Alexander Dubchek become leader of Czechoslovakia?
January 1968
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When was the Tet Offensive
January - February 1968
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When does Johnson announce his intention
not to stand for a second term?
March 1968
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When was Dubchek's action programme announced
April 1968
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When was do Preliminary Peace talks begin in Paris
May 1968
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When was the Non-Proliferation Treaty signed?
July 1968
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When do Soviet troops move into Prague?
August 1968
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When is the Brezhnev Doctrine announced
November 1968
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What occurred during the Tet offensive
The Vietcong launched a series of simultaneous attacks on US targets in over 100 towns and cities in South Vietnam. However they failed to gain support from South Vietnamese.
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What was the Buddhist crisis?
Diem was a Catholic, and began persecuting Buddhists, which was the majority of the population. Resulting in Protest including Buddhists setting themselves on fire
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When was the Austrian Treaty?
May 1955
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What was Brinkmanship?
Introduced under Eisenhower, using nuclear weapons as a diplomatic tool to
force agreements. To reach the verge of war without engaging in war
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Which leaders attended the Yalta Conference?


Winston Churchill, Franklin D Roosevelt, Stalin

Card 3


What did the US and Britain want?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Stalin want?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was agreed at the Yalta Conference?


Preview of the front of card 5
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