COASTAL LANDFORMS FORMED BY EROSION

How does different rock types effect erosion?
- Soft rocks or rocks with lots of joints have a low resistance to erosion. - Hard rocks with a solid structure have a high resistance to erosion.
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Where do headlands and bays occur?
- Where there are alternating bands of resistant and less resistant rock along a coast.
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Formation of headlands and bays
- The less resistant rock (e.g. clay) is eroded quickly and forms a bay-bays have a gentle slope. - Resistant rock (e.g. chalk) is eroded more slowly+is left jutting out, forming a headland-headlands have steep sides.
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Formation of caves, arches and stacks - 1) cave
-Headlands are usually made of resistant rocks that have weaknesses like cracks.-Waves crash into the headlands and enlarge the cracks-mainly by hydraulic power and abrasion. - Repeated erosion and enlargement of the cracks causes a cave to form.
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Formation of caves, arches and stacks - 2) arch
- Continued erosion deepens the cave until it breaks through the headland - forming an arch, e.g. Durdle Door in Dorset.
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Formation of caves, arches and stacks - 3) stacks
- Erosion continues to wear away the rock supporting the arch, until it evenually collapses. - This forms a stack - an isolated rock that's separate from the headland, e.g. Old Harry in Dorset.
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Cliffs
- A cliff is a steep high rock face formed by weathering and erosion along the coastline. - Hard rock cliffs tend to be more vertical. - Soft rock cliffs tend to be more sloping.
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Formation of wave-cut notches and wave-cut platforms - 1) wave-cut notches
- Waves cause most erosion at foot of cliff. - This forms a wave-cut notch, which is enlarged as erosion continues.
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Formation of wave-cut notches and wave-cut platforms - 2) wave-cut platforms
-Rock above notch becomes unstable+eventually collapses.-Collapsed material is washed away+a new wave-cut notch starts to form.-Repeated collapsing results in the cliff retreating.-Wave-cut platform is platform that's left behind as cliff retreats.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where do headlands and bays occur?

Back

- Where there are alternating bands of resistant and less resistant rock along a coast.

Card 3

Front

Formation of headlands and bays

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Formation of caves, arches and stacks - 1) cave

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Formation of caves, arches and stacks - 2) arch

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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