Coastal environment - WJEC

  • Created by: Hannahrh
  • Created on: 03-12-17 14:38
What are the main inputs, out puts, stores and transfers?
Inputs: energy,geology,change in sea level, human activities. Processes: weathering and mass movement, erosion. Transfers: transport. Stores:deposition.Outputs: coastal landforms, sediment loss, loss of wave energy.
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How does equilibrium effect a beach in the winter?
high energy waves deposited a storm beach and off shore bar.The storm beach becomes flatter due to stronger swosh. beach becomes steeper as off shore bare is deposited onto it. bach profile becoves overall flatter untill swosh and back wsh are equal
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How does equilibrium effect a beach in the summer?
low energy waves transport sediment onto beach, making profile steeper. This makes the backwash more powerful making the beach profile flatter until swosh and backwash are equal.
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What is fetch?
max. distance of open water over which wind can blow
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What are sea waves?
From local winds (small - less distance)
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What are swell waves?
From distant storms (larger - more distance)
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Why do waves break?
Added friction
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Wht are the two types of waves and their main features ?
Destructive(spilling): large height, steep,small length. Constructive(surging): small height,relatively flat, large wave length
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What is wave refraction?
At shallower depth (near land) break first compared to in deeper water- making the wave bend.
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What happens to a headland in wave refraction?
Erosion energy if focus on
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What is the flow of offshore currents?
Out to sea
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What is the flow of onshore currents?
Towards the coast
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What are rip currents?
Backwash is funneled back out through deeper water
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What are the diagram called showing wind direction?
Wind rose
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What are tides?
Daily change in the level of sea
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What is tidal change?
The difference between high and low tide
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What causes tides?
Gravitational pull of the moon/sun
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What is neap tide?
Moon is NOT in line with the sun
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What is a spring tide?
Moon is inline with the sun
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What is a tidal bore?
Current of a river 'flips' and goes up stream
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Where in the world experiences the strongest winds?
High latitude
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Where in the world experiences the weakest winds?
Low latitude
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What is the coastal sediment budget?
It refers to the balance between sediment added to and removed from the coastal budget.
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Where does beach sediment come from(what are the main two types)?
marine: waves bringing in material, marine organism. Terrestrial: human activity, cliff erosion, rivers
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A positive sediment budget is '------'
bigger
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A negative sediment budget is '-------'
smaller
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How is sediment lost in the sediment budget?
Rivers taking out sediment to sea, people
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How is sediment gained in the sediment budget?
People, storms (from deep water)
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Types of what are the main 4 types of erosion?
Corrasion, Attrition, Solution, Hydraulic action
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What is corrasion?
Waves 'throwing' sediment at cliff - causing to break down
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What is attrition?
Sediment hitting each other - causing to break down
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What is solution?
Minerals and rock particles are dissolved causing to break down
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What is Hydraulic action?
Waves forcing into creak and faults in the rock, making them expand causing to break down
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What are the 3 main types of weathering?
Physical (freeze-thaw) Chemical (acid rain) Biotic (roots,bird droppings,animals)
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What effects the rate and type of weathering?
Amount of wildlife, Climate (acid rain,wind,rainfall,temp), rock and soil type
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What is a discordant coastline?
Strata bands are perpendicular to the sea
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What are the main features formed on discordant coastline?
Headlands and bays
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What is a concordant coastline?
Strata bands are parallel to the sea?
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2 types of resistant rock?
Chalk and Limestone
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2 types of less rsistancant rock?
Clay and Sandstone
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What is the case study for discordant and concordant coastlines?
South coast (Lulworth cove, and Swanage Bay)
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What is a coastal cliff?
A steep slope which rises from the sea
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How are coastal cliffs formed?
1. erosion only happens between low and high tide 2.wave notch 3. notch grows bigger 4. wave cut platform and cliff form due to collapse 5. slows down due to dispersed of waves (side note:sub aerial weather attacks from a top also)
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What is lithology?
The mechanical and chemical properties of rocks. It includes such factors as minerals composition,hardness and solubility
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What is structure?
The pattern in the layering of the rocks that makeup the coastline
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What are the 4 types of dipping strata?
Horizontal,vertical, Seaward and inland
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What causes mass movement? (There are 4)
Erosion, Weathering,Natural disasters,Human activity
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What are the main 4 types of mass movement?
Landslide,Rockfall,Mudslide,Rotational slip/slump
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What are landslides?
Cliffs made of softer rock/deposited material, which slips down when lubricated (keeps shape till at bottom)
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What are rockfalls?
Blocks of rocks, dislodged by weathering fall to the cliff foot.
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What are mudslides?
Rock/soil moves like a liquid (liquid movement) down a cliff
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What is rotational slips/slumps?
Sections of the cliff give way along a well-defined concave slip surface. fallen material stays in an identifiable mass on the shore
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What is the case study for landslides?
Beachy Head
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What is the case study for rotational slips?
Barton on Sea
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What is the case study for rockfall?
North cliffs in Cornwell
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How are caves, arches stacks and stumps formed?
Faults/weakness attacked- erosion making them expand. Wave refraction focus energy on headland expanding, form cave. Erosion breaks through = arch. Erosion/weathering leads= collapse=stack. erosion continue = stump.
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What are is the case study for caves, arches stacks and stumps?
Old Harrys Rocks
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How are blowholes and geos formed?
Erosion long back of cave and along the line of weakness till breaks through (blowholes). The roof of the cave collapses a narrow inlet/geo is formed.
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What are the names of the transportation methods?
Traction, Saltation, Suspension, Solution
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What is traction?
Large rocks roll/push along sea bed by current.
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What is saltation?
Smaller rocks/pebbles 'hop' along sea bed (current pick up and drop).
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What is suspension?
Very fine material is suspended in the sea.
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What is solution?
Dissolved salts in the water.
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What is a positive hypothesis?
There will be a relationship between the two compassion.
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What is a null hypothesis?
There is no statistically significant correlation between the two compassion.
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standard deviation - the bigger the number the ----- reliable the data is.
Less
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Why do beaches have patterns of sediment?
Wave energy.Tidal range.Wave type. Storm surge. Human activity
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What is systematic sampling?
Choosing items at regular intervals e.g. every 20m
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What is random sampling?
Equal chance of being selected - using a computer generated to create items such as grid references.
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What is stratified sampling?
If know groups/class of data- its possible to make sure a representative of each ids in the data. e.g. different rock types are evidence along a coast line, so get data from different areas of different geology
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What is point sampling?
Take observations at individual points. e.g. different houses long a street.
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What is line sampling?
Take observations along a line. e.g. up a beach from sea to base of a cliff.
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What is area sampling?
Make a square on the ground/map. take observations within that square. e.g. place a quadrat on the beach and measure pebble shape
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What are the 'markers' in the angularity of beach sediment?
Unrounded, angular, sub angular, poorly rounded, rounded, well rounded.
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What order do the appear from back to front on a beach? (cusps, berms, ripples, storm beach)
Storm beach, berms, cusps, ripples.
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Describe a berm
The further back the berm is the stronger the storm was after the 'big storm' was which formed the storm beach. (weaker storms = berms)
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What causes ripples?
Under breaking waves form oscillations (small waving bit under the breaking waves)
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What is a sweep zone?
The difference between winter and summer beach profiles.
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Beach profile for summer
Wide berms, constructive waves
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Beach profile for winter
Eroded or no berms, bar, steeper profile, dune scarp, destructive waves
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Why is LSD important?
It is needed for all formations/ beach features to b formed.
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How is a spit formed?
Long shore drift continues pass a change in land, deposition takes place. Behind a salt marsh-low energy. Often rounded at the end- river can curve the end due to its currents taking away sediment and/or wind blows the sediment away.
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What is a case study for spits?
Harlech (N. Wales)
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How are bars formed?
LSD forms a spit which, grows across a bay - joining up 2 headlands (a lagoon is formed behind)
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What is a case study for bars?
Slapton Bay (Devon)
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How are tombolos formed?
LSD forms a spit which grows out from mainland and joins to an island
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What is a case study for tombolos?
Chesil beach + Portland island
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How are cuspate forelands formed?
LSD forms spits along both sides of a headland forming a triangle shape. vegation may grow if becomes established
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What is a case study for cuspate forelands?
Dungeness (Kent)
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Swash-aligned beaches are ------ to shore. This means the water runs along the ------- path.Leading there to be ----- net movement.
1) parallel 2) same 3)no
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Drift-alignd beaches are at an -----to shore. this means -------- takes place
1) angle 2) LSD
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What are the 3 conditions needed for sand dunes to form?
1. large tidal range 2. strong winds 3. lots of dry sediement
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How do aeolian conditions move the sand?
Blowing along sand and saltation (picking up and dropping of sand particles)
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What is fluid fresh hold velocity?
The speed that the wind needs to be for the movement of sand particles
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What are the types of dunes?
Embryo -Fore - Yellow - Grey - Dune slack
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What impact does strong on-shore wind (in storm) have on the different types of dunes?
Yellow+fixed(grey +dune slack)=grow Fore+embryo=destroyed
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What is Flocculation?
When a river enters the sea- clay particles experience an electrical charge = clump together = heavy+ settle
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Where does the sediment come from that form salt marshes?
The river and vegetation waste
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What type of plants grow in salt marsh ?
Cordgrass, sportia, ell grass, seablite
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Why can they survive?
Glands descrete salt, 2 root systems (strong hold)
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What does Halophytes mean?
Can live in salt water
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What is the value of salt marsh?
Rare ecosystems, farming,residential opportunity , natural sea deference
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What are the main two types of threats for salt marshes?
Human and natural
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What are the Human threats?
pollution,dredging, shipping/water sports, reclaiming
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What are the natural threats?
sea level rise, storms,changing temperature and weather patterns.
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What is coral?
Small marine invertabrates with on calcium carbonate exoskeletons.
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What are the conditions needed for coral development?
Sunlight, a hard surface to form on, clear nutrint rich water, stable climate, temp 16-28^oC
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What are the main types of coral reefs?
Fringing, Barrier,Atoll
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What is a fringing reef?
Directly attached to the shore/boarders it with an intervening shallow channel or lagoon.
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What is a barrier reef?
Separated from mainland/island shores by deep channel/lagoon
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What is an atoll reef?
Circular/continuous barrier refs extends ll thee way around a lagoon without a central island.
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What are the main threats to coral reefs?
Physical- disease, climate change,outbreak of starfish. Humans- tourist, fishing, plastic
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What is the importance of coral reefs?
tourisum, natural sea deference, 25% of fish pop closely related to coral reefs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does equilibrium effect a beach in the winter?

Back

high energy waves deposited a storm beach and off shore bar.The storm beach becomes flatter due to stronger swosh. beach becomes steeper as off shore bare is deposited onto it. bach profile becoves overall flatter untill swosh and back wsh are equal

Card 3

Front

How does equilibrium effect a beach in the summer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is fetch?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are sea waves?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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