Chemistry

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Define an element
A substance composed of one type of atom with the same atomic number
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Define a compound
A substance composed of two or more atoms with different atomic numbers chemically joined together
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Which group are the noble gases?
Group 0
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Which group are the halogens?
Group 7
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What a halogens like as solids?
Brittle
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What do you use fractional distillation for?
Miscible liquids
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What do you use filtration for?
Two solids
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What does fractional distillation rely on?
Different boiling points
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Ar definition
the weighted average mass of the isotopes of an element measured on a scale on which a carbon 12 atom has 12 units
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Is diffusion faster in gases or liquids?
Gases
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What state is hydrogen at room temperature?
gas
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What is the physical test for water?
Boils at 100 degrees
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What gas makes up most of air?
Nitrogen
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How do magnesium and oxygen react?
Bright white light
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How do sulphur and oxygen react?
Brilliant blue flame
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Test for Carbon Dioxide?
Turns limewater milky
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When carbon dioxide dissolves in water is the solution acidic or alkaline?
acidic
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Define empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of elements present in a compound
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Boiling point of simple molecular substances?
Low
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How are ions formed?
By the gain or loss of electrons to fill the outer shell of an atom
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Define oxidation in terms of electrons
Oxidation is the loss of electrons
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Define reduction in terms of electrons
Reduction is the gain of electrons
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Can ionic compounds conduct electricity and why?
Yes because they are made of charged ions, but only if the ions can move
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Define covalent bonding
The strong attraction between the bonding pair of electrons and the nuclei of the atoms involved in the bond
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What kind of elements form covalent bonds?
Non metals
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What two forms does carbon exist in?
Graphite and Diamond
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Define displacement reaction
where a more reactive metal takes the place of a less reactive metal in a compound
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What is the natural form of carbon used in the blast furnace?
Coke
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what do metals above hydrogen in reactivity series exist as
ores
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what do metals below hydrogen in reactivity series exist as
natively
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what is the main impurity in iron ore
silicon dioxide
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define homologous series
a family of compounds with similar properties due to their similar bonding
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what does the complete combustion of alkanes give?
carbon dioxide and water
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when do alkanes react with bromine water
in the presence of uv light
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what state and colour is chlorine at room temperature
green gas
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what state and colour is bromine at room temperature
dark red liquid
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what state and colour is iodine at room temperature
dark grey solid
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as you go down the group of halogens how does this affect the reactivity
they become less reactive
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why is carbon dioxide used to extinguish fires
it is denser than air
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why is carbon dioxide used in fizzy drinks
it is soluble in water
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in exothermic reactions is the enthalpy change positive or negative
negative
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in endothermic reactions is the enthalpy change positive or negative
positive
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define dynamic equilibrium
when the forwards and backwards reaction are occuring at the same rate and the same time
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what effect does increasing the pressure have on the position of equilibrium
it will move to the side with less gas molecules
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what effect does increasing the temperature have on the position of equilibrium
it will move in the direction of the endothermic reaction
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define activation energy
the minumum amount of kinetic energy that two particles need in order to react when they collide
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What is bitumen used for
making roads
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what is gasoline used for
cars
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what are refinery gases used for
domestic heating and cooking
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What temperature does cracking take place at
600 or 700
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what is poly(propene) used for
ropes and crates
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in the haber process, what gases are used to make ammonia
nitrogen and hydrogen
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what pressure is needed for the haber process
200 atm
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what kind of catalyst is used in the haber process
an iron catalyst
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what acid does ammonia produce
nitric acid
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what colour does litmus turn with alkaline substances
blue
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what colour does methyl orange turn with acidic substances
red
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what colour does litmus turn with a neutral solution
purple
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what colour does litmus turn with an acidic solution
red
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what colour does phenolphthalein turn with an acidic solution
colourless
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what colour does phenolphthalein turn with an alkaline solution
pink
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what colour does methyl orange turn with an alkaline solution
yellow
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What chlorides are insoluble
silver and lead
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What sulphates are insoluble
lead, barium and calcium
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what carbonates are soluble
sodium, potassium and ammonium
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nitrates are soluble or insoluble
soluble
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What colour does lithium go in a flame test
red
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What colour does sodium go in a flame test
orange
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What colour does potassium go in a flame test
lilac
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What colour does calcium go in a flame test
brick red
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What do you add to a substance to test for ammonium
sodium hydroxide
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What colour precipitate comes from sodium hydroxide and copper
blue
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What colour precipitate comes from sodium hydroxide and iron (ii)
green
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What colour precipitate comes from sodium hydroxide and iron (iii)
orange brown
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what acid and compound do you add to test for halides
nitric acid and silver nitrate
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What colour precipitate comes from chloride
white
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What colour precipitate comes from bromide
pale cream
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What colour precipitate comes from iodide
yellow
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what do you add to test for sulphate
hydrochloric acid and barium chloride
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what colour precipitate shows the presence of a sulphate
white
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what do you add to test for carbonate
nitric acid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define a compound

Back

A substance composed of two or more atoms with different atomic numbers chemically joined together

Card 3

Front

Which group are the noble gases?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which group are the halogens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What a halogens like as solids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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