Chemistry

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What are Ions?
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms either gain or loose electrons.
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What has the same electronic structure as ions?
The nobel gases have the same electronic structure as ions.
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What do metal atoms form?
Metal atoms form positive ions.
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What do non-metal atoms form?
Non-metal atoms form negative ions.
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What is electrostatics force?
An electrostatic force is formed by difference in electrical charge (i.e positive and negative) between two particles.
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What is an ionic bond?
The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charges ions.
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What is an electron?
An electron is a very small negatively charged particle.
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Where is an electron in the atom?
The electron is found in the space surrounding the nucleus in the atom.
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What does this loss of gain of an electron do?
This loss of gain of an electron leaves a complete highest energy level.So the electronic structure is the same of a nobel gas.
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Do metals and non-metals go in the same direction when they ionise?
No,metals and non-metals go in different directions when they ionise.
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What happens when metals ionise?
Metal atoms loose the electron or electrons in their highest energy level and become positively charged ions.
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What happens when non-metals ionise?
Non-metals gain an electron or electrons from another atom to become negatively charges ions.
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What is the rule for number of ions formed by a metal?
The number of charges of an ion formed by a metal is equal to the group number of the metal.
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What is the rule for the number of ions formed by a non-metal?
The number of charges of an ion formed by a non-metal is equal to the group number minus eight.
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What does hydrogen form?
hydrogen forms H+ ions.
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Do carbon and silicon in group 4 form ionic bonds?
No carbon and silicon in group 4 usually form covalent bonds by sharing electrons.
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Do the elements in group 0 react with other elements?
The elements in group 0 do not react with any other elements to form ions.
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What is an ionic compound?
When metals react with non-metals,electrons are transferred from metal atoms to non-metal atoms forming ions.The resulting compound is an ionic compound.
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What happen to the metals and non-metals in these reaction?
In these reactions the metal atoms give electrons to the non metal atoms.
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What is an element?
A substance made of only one atom.
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What are the elements in group one of the periodic table called?
The elements in group one of the periodic table are called the Alkali Metals.
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What do the alkali metals form when they react with non-metals?
When alkali metals react with non-metals they form ionic compounds.
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What type of charge do these compounds have?(Alkali metals)
These compounds have a single positive charge (i.e sodium forms sodium ions Na+.)
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What are the elements in group seven of the periodic table called?
The elements in group seven of the periodic table are called The Halogens.
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What happens when the halogens react with metals?
When the halogens react with metals they form ionic compounds.
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What type of charge do these compounds have?(the halogens)
These compounds have a single negative charge (i.e chlorine forms chloride ions,Cl-)
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What is a lattice?
A lattice is a regular grid like arrangement of the atoms in a material.
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What happens to the ions in sodium chloride?
The ions in sodium chloride form a regular lattice in which ionic bonds act in all directions.
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What is the formula for calcium hydroxide?
The formula for calcium hydroxide is Ca(OH)2
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Why does sodium chloride have a lower melting point than magnesium chloride?
Sodium chloride has a lower melting point than magnesium chloride because sodium ions are larger and have smaller charge than magnesium ions so the ionic bonds are weaker.
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How does sodium chloride conduct electricity?
Sodium chloride conducts when molten because it's ions are free to move.
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What is the structure of Magnesium oxide?
The structure of magnesium oxide is a giant ionic lattice.
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When does sodium chloride conduct electricity?
Sodium chloride conducts electricity when in a solution or molten.
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What is an atom made up of?
An atom is made up of protons,electrons and neutrons.
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Where are the different parts of the atom?
The nucleus containing the protons and neutrons is surrounded by the electrons in the atom.
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What is an isotope?
An isotope is an atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
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What is the 'plum pudding model?'
The plum pudding model was an early,incorrect model of an atom,it was disapproved by Rutherford's scattering experiment and replaced with a nuclear model.
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What is a nuclear model?
A nuclear model is the scientific idea that an atom has electrons surrounding a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.
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State the three sub-atomic particles.
The three sub-atomic particles are protons,neutrons and electrons.
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What is the relative mass of protons,neutrons and electrons?
Relative mass: protons = 1,neutrons = 1,electrons = almost zero.
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What is the relative charge of protons,neutrons and electrons?
Relative charge:protons = +1,neutrons = 0,electrons = -1
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Do the number of neutrons in an atom equal the number of protons?
NO! The number of protons in an atom is equal to the number of electrons.This means that the atom is electrically neutral overall.
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What happens when a atom looses or gains an electron?
When an atom looses or gains an electron is becomes a charged particle this is an ion.
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What happens if the atom looses one or more electrons?
If an atom looses one or more electrons it becomes a positively charged ion.
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What happens if the atom gains one or more electrons?
If an atom gains one or more electrons it becomes a negatively charged ion.
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What is the number of protons in a nucleus of an atom called?
The number of protons in a nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number.
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Do the atoms of a particular element all have the same number of protons?
Yes the number of protons between different particular elements are all the same.
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Do the atoms of different elements have a different number of protons?
Yes different elements have a different number of protons from one another.
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Whats is the mass number?
The total number of protons and neutrons.
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In a chemical symbol where is the proton number shown?
The proton number is shown below the chemical symbol.
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Where is the mass number shown in a chemical symbol?
The mass number in a chemical symbol is shown at the top.
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How do you find out the number of neutrons in an element from the chemical symbol?
To find the number of neutrons in an elements from the chemical symbol is by subtracting the proton number from the mass number.(i.e Cl35 has 17 protons,the number of neutrons is 35 (the mass number) - 17(the proton number)=18 so there is 18neutron.
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Does an isotope of an element have the same mass number as the original element?
No the mass number of an isotope is different to the original element.
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In the plum pudding model of an atom what where the plums?
The plums in the plum pudding model where the electrons.
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Which type of radiation was used in the Rutherford scattering experiment?
Alpha radiation was used in the Rutherford scattering experiment.
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Compared to the whole atom the nucleus is..
Much smaller compared to the rest of the atom but it is the heaviest part.
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What do ionic substances contain?
Ionic substances contain charged particles called ions
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What is ELECTROLYSIS?
ELECTROLYSIS is the process ionic substances are decomposed into simpler substances when an electric current passes through them
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What does the substance have to be in for ELECTROLYSIS to work?
Molten or a solution
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Why does ELECTROLYSIS have to work in molten or a solution?
For ELECTROLYSIS to work, ions have to be free to move so they can carry an electrical charge to break down the ionic substances
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What happens during ELECTROLYSIS?
Positive ions move to the negative electrode - They receive electrons and are reduced. Negative ions move to the positive electrode - They lose electrons and are oxidised
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What is the substance which is broken down in ELECTROLYSIS called?
Electrolyte
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What is ELECTROLYSIS used for?
Electroplating
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What is the most abundant (found in large quantities) metal on Earth?
Aluminium
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Why is Aluminium expensive to extract?
It uses a lot of electricity to extract
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What is Aluminium ore called?
Bauxite
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What are the three products of ELECTROLYSIS?
Hydrogen is used as a fuel and for making ammonia. Chlorine is used to kill bacteria in water, and to make bleach and plastics. Sodium hydroxide is used to make soap and bleach
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What is a half-equation?
Half-equations shows you what happens at one of the electrons during ELECTROLYSIS
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How do you write half-equations?
A half-equation is balanced by adding, or taking away, a number of electrons equal to the total number of charges on the ions in the equation.
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What is PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
Photosynthesis is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green plants. It is the first step towards making food
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What happens during PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, a green substance found in chloroplasts in some plant cells and algae. Absorbed light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into a sugar called glucose. Oxygen is released
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What is the word equation for PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
carbon dioxide + water >> light energy >> glucose + oxygen
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What is some of the glucose used for?
Some glucose is used for respiration, while some is converted into insoluble starch for storage. The stored starch can later be turned back into glucose and used in respiration.
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What are the three main affecting factors on PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
Light intensity, Temperature and Carbon dioxide concentration
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How does light intensity affect the rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
Without enough light, the plant will not photosynthesis very quickly even if the other affecting factors were perfect. The more light, the faster the reaction
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How does Temperature affect the ate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
If it is too cold, the rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS will decrease. If it is too hot, the enzymes will denature and PHOTOSYNTHESIS will not occur
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How does Carbon oxide concentration affect the rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
Insufficient levels of carbon dioxide affects the rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS due to respiration purposes.
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At night, it is too dark for PHOTOSYNTHESIS to happen, what is glucose stored as through the night?
Starch and Fat oils
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Some glucose is used to produce...
Cellulose and Proteins such as enzymes
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What do plants also need to make proteins?
Nitrates which are absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions
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What do fats, oils and starch have in common?
They are all insoluble
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What does insoluble mean?
An insoluble substance is unable to be dissolved
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What is a anion?
A anion is a negatively charged ion.
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What is a cation?
A cation is a positively charged ion.
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What test do you use for metal ions?
Flame test.
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What two substances do you need to do this test?
Clean platinum and dilute HCL.
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What colour flame does lithium go when tested in this way?
Crimson red flame.
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What colour does sodium go when tested this way?
Yellow/orange flame.
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What colour does potassium go when tested this way?
Lilac flame.
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What colour does calcium go when tested this way?
Brick red flame.
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What is the other test for metal ions ?
Adding a metal hydroxide and judging the substance by the precipitate formed.
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What's special about metal hydroxide?
Metal hydroxides are insoluble and precipitate out of solution when formed.
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What happens when you add a metal hydroxide to copper(III)Cu2+ ?
This reactions forms a blue precipitate.
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What happens when you add a metal hydroxide to Iron(II)2+ ?
This reactions form a sludgy green precipitate.
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What happens when you add a metal hydroxide to iron(III)Fe3+?
This reaction forms a reddish brown precipitate.
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What's the test for ammonia?
Damp red litmus paper turns blue.
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Why is it important for the litmus is damp?
The litmus paper needs to be damp so the ammonia gas can dissolve and make the colour change.
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If you want to test a substance for ammonium ions(NH4+) what do you add to it?
Add sodium hydroxide to a solution of your mystery substance in a test tube.If there's ammonia given off this means there are ammonium ions in your mystery substance.
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What are cations attracted to and what is it's charge?
Cations are attracted to the cathode and the cathode has a negative charge.
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What are common properties of ionic substances?
Ion ice substances tend to be crystalline solids with high melting points.
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What might ionic substances look like?
Ionic substances may be a gas,a volatile liquid(you might be able to smell it) or a soft solid.
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What is an anion?
An anion is a negatively charged ion.
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What is the test for carbonates?
To test for carbonates add dilute Hydrochloric acid to your test sample.If carbonates(CO32-) are present carbon dioxide will be released,you can test for carbon dioxide with limewater.
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What colour precipitate does sulfate(SO42-) ions produce?
Sulfate ions produces a white precipitate.
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To test for sulfate ion what do you add?
To test for sulfate ion you add dilute Hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution.
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If there is a white precipitate of the barium sulfate solution what does this mean?
A white precipitate of the barium sulfate solution means the original compound was a sulfate.
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Why do you add Hydrochloric acid to solution?
The Hydrochloric acid is added to get rid of any traces of carbonate or sulfite ions before you do the test. Both of these would also produce a precipitate so they would confuse the results.
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What two substances do you add to test for halides?
To test for halides you add nitric acid(HNO3) followed by silver nitrate solution(AgNO3).
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When you test chloride In this way what colour precipitate does it give off?
When you test chloride in this way it gives a white precipitate called silver chloride.
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When you test bromide in this way what colour precipitate does it give?
Bromide when it is tested like this gives a cream precipitate of silver bromide.
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What anion when tested in this way gives off a yellow precipitate ?
Iodine gives off a yellow precipitate of silver iodine when tested like this.
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Why is nitric acid added before the test to the substance?
The nitric acid is added to get rid of traces of carbonate and sulfite ions before the test.make sure in this test to use nitric acid not Hydrochloric acid.
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What's the test that uses Hydrochloric acid and limewater?
The test for carbonates.
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What's the test that uses nitric acid and silver nitrate solution?
The test for halides.
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What's the test that uses Hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution?
The test for sulfates.
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What's the test for chlorine?
Hold damp litmus paper over chlorine and it will bleach it white,it will turn red for a moment though as chlorine is acidic.
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What's the test for oxygen?
The test for oxygen is holding a glowing splint in a tube of oxygen and the splint will relight.
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Wats the test for carbon dioxide?
Carbon dioxide will turn limewater cloudy,bubble the gas through lime water and watch it go cloudy.
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What's the test for hydrogen?
Hydrogen when put near a lighted splint will make a squeaky pop.
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Why does the hydrogen test make this noise?
The noise comes from hydrogen burning with the oxygen in the air to form H2O.
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Wats the test for ammonia?
Ammonia turns damp red litmus paper blue,it also has a very strong odour.
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What substance can be used to test water?
Copper(II) sulfate can be used to test water.
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What happens when copper(II) sulfate is bound to water?
The copper(II) sulfate and water form blue crystals.
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What happens if you heat the blue hydrated copper (II) sulfate crystals?
If you heat the hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals it drives the water off.
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By doing this process what does it leave?
The heating process leaves a white anhydrous copper(II) sulfate powder,which doesn't have any water bound to it.
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What does anhydrous mean?
Anhydrous means without water.
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What does hydrated mean?
Hydrated means with water.
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What happens if you add water to the white anhydrous copper(II) sulfate powder?
The blue crystals will form again.
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What do you need to test for water?
You need anhydrous copper (II) sulfate,if you add your substance to the white powder and it turns blue the substance is water.
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What will this test not tell you?
This test will not tell you if the water is pure.
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What does pure mean?
Pure means that the sample is made up of only one substance.
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How does pureness affect the properties of the sample?
If the sample is pure it will stick to its defined physical properties such as boiling and freezing point.
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What are the properties of pure water?
Pure water will always boil at 100 degrees and freeze at 0 degrees.
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Which two tests do you need litmus paper for?
Chlorine need damp litmus paper,ammonia needs red litmus paper.
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Which two tests need splints?
Test for hydrogen and oxygen.
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Which test needs limewater?
The test for carbon dioxide.
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Which test needs anhydrous copper(II) sulfate ?
The test for water.
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