Chemistry definitions - introduction to Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry
Study of compounds containing carbon
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Hydrocarbons
Molecule containing HYDROGEN and CARBON
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Saturated
Molecule containing no double bonds
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Unsaturated
Molecule containing double bonds
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Free radical
Species with an unpaired electron
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Nucleophile
Lone pair donor
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Electrophile
Lone pair acceptor (deficient)
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Addition reaction
Molecule joins to an unsaturated molecule to produce SATURATED MOLECULE
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Substitution reaction
An atom/group replaces another atom/group
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Elimination reaction
Molecule is lost from saturated molecule to form unsaturated molecule
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Hydration
Addition of water
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Hydrogenation
Addition of hydrogen
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Hydrolysis
Reaction involving breaking of bonds with addition of water
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Dehydration
Elimination of water
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Dehydrogenation
Elimination of hydrogen
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Homologous series
A family of compounds with the same general formula and similar chemical properties. In a series, each member differs by the addition of CH2 group, causing gradual change in physical properties
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Function group
The atom/group that is responsible for most of the chemical reactions of a molecule
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Carbocation
A positive ion with a positive charge on C atom
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Aliphatic
An organic compound containing C chains and branches
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Cyclic
Organic compound containing C rings, alicyclic
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Aromatic
Organic compounds containing 1 or more benzene ring
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Structural isomer
Molecules with same molecular formula but DIFFERENT structures
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Chain isomers
Structure isomers that differ by having a different carbon chain
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Position isomers
Structural isomers that differ by having functional group in different place
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Functional group isomer
Structural isomer that differ by having a different functional group
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Stereroisomers
Molecules with same molecular and structural formula but a different spatial arrangement of atoms
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Geometric isomers
Molecules which have a different arrangement of group AROUND C=C
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Optical isomer
Molecules which have a non-superimpossible mirror images
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Molecular formula
Formula which gives the exact/actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule
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Empirical formula
Formula with gives the simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
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Structural formula
This shows how atoms are joined together in a molecule
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Displayed formula
This shows all bonds atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal formula
This uses lines to represent bonds. Each end point represents a C atom. H atoms and bonds are not usually shown (unless part of a functional group, IE alcohol, then you put OH at end of the line
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Molecule containing HYDROGEN and CARBON

Back

Hydrocarbons

Card 3

Front

Molecule containing no double bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Molecule containing double bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Species with an unpaired electron

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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