3.1.5 All Introduction to Organic Chemistry Notes

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3.1.5 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Definitions
Empirical formula ­ The simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
Molecular formula ­The actual number of each type of atom in a compound
Structural formula ­A written formula that shows how the atoms in a compound are bonded
together without physical drawing out of the bonds
Displayed formula ­ A representation of a molecule, drawn out in full showing all the bonds
Hydrocarbons ­ Compounds containing hydrogen and carbon atoms only
Functional groups ­ The reactive part of a molecule which determines the properties and
chemicals reactions it partakes in
Homologous series ­ A series of compounds with the same functional group.
Similar chemical properties
Graduation in physical properties e.g. boiling point, melting point
Have a general formula e.g. CH 2
Structural isomers ­ Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural and
displayed formulas
- Position isomers ­ The functional group in different positions
- Chain isomers ­ Different carbon chains (branched)
Geometric isomers ­ The fixed rotation about the C=C bond means that a compound with two
different groups around the double bond can have different arrangements of them, making E/Z
isomers. (See alkenes topic)
Free radicals ­Neutral species with one unpaired electron. Highly reactive and are usually
intermediates in a reaction.
There is more opportunity for strong VDW forces in unbranched alkane chains as they can pack
together more tightly, giving higher melting and boiling points.
Nomenclature
Look at longest carbon chain
Use alphabetical order all the time
Number so that the numbers are as small as possible
Use the prefixes of "-di, -tri, -tetra"

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