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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry





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AQA AS LEVEL








Student Guide to Unit 1
Foundation Chemistry



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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

Atomic Structure


History of the atom ­ constituent particles


~ fifth century BC Empedocles ­ a Greek philosopher proposed Air, Earth, Fire, and Water ­
and that all matter is made up of only these four components in variable proportions
Democritus of Abdera (460BC ­…

Page 3

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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhWgv0STLZs&feature=related
http://wwwoutreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/nucleus/nucleus1_1.htm

1932 ­ Chadwick ­ discovered the neutron

http://wwwoutreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/neutron/neutron5_1.htm



Summary Questions Page 5 1 3





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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

Atomic Particles


location relative mass relative charge
Proton nucleus 1 +1
Neutron nucleus 1 0
electron shells around nucleus 1

relative (to a proton) charge and mass are used since the actual individual values are tiny

proton (atomic) number (Z) Z = number of protons…

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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry


Summary Questions Page 9 1 3

AS Chemistry (NELSON THORNES) AQA 4 ­ 5, 8 9

Chemguide (Web) Atomic number, mass spectra





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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

Relative Isotopic Mass

relative isotopic mass: mass of an atom of a particular isotope relative to of
the mass of a single atom of carbon12 (12C)
note how this differs from mass number

Mass Spectrometry


this provides us with two vital pieces of information about…

Page 7

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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

you must be able to interpret simple mass spectra to determine the elements present from their relative isotopic mass and also their relative
abundance
the value of the relative isotopic mass can be read directly from the m/z value of a given peak on the…

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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry


Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)


relative atomic mass (Ar) weighted average of isotopic masses of atoms of an element
relative to of the mass of a single atom of carbon12 (12C)
(Ar ions Ar atoms since electrons have negligible mass)

the `weighted average' reflects the relative…

Page 9

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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

Electronic Configuration



Energy Levels and Shells


1913 Bohr proposed a `solar system' model based on electron shells ­ in effect the GCSE model
1926 ­ Schrödinger ­ put forward a mathematical equation that described the electron as a wave effectively creating the science of quantum…

Page 10

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AS Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry

these sub shells each have a discrete energy level (i.e. same value) in an isolated atom (this will only be studied further when you do transition
metals in Y13, however, it wont do you any harm to get to grips with orbital hybridisation if you…

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