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Chains, Energy and Resources
Representing formulae of organic compounds
Empirical formula ­ The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each
element present in a compound.
Molecular formula ­ The actual number of each element in a molecule.
General formula ­ The simplest algebraic formula of a member of the

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Structural isomers: Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different
structural arrangements of atoms.

E/Z isomerism: A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each
carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the
restricted rotation of the C=C bond.…

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Substitution - one on ­ one off -1 atom is exchanged for another
Elimination ­ 1 = 1 + 1 a molecule is eliminated from a larger molecule
Rearrangement ­ 1 = same molecular formula, different structural
arrangement (isomers)

Radical substitution-Alkanes

Electrophilic Addition-Alkenes

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Primary alcohol ----------- aldehyde ---------- carboxylic acid

Secondary alcohol ----------- ketone

Tertiary alcohol---------- Nothing!

Create an alcohol - hydrate an alkene with steam
Hydrolysis of a halogenoalkane ­ nuclear substitution

Steam Hydration

C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

Hydrolysis of halogenoalkane ­nuclear substitution

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Esterification of alcohols
An ester is created by reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid. It is refluxed with
H2SO4 added as a catalyst (H+ catalyst)

Naming an ester:
Take the alcohol name as the first name. (e.g. methyl)
The first part of the second name is the acid. (e.g.ethan)…

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Exothermic Endothermic
Gives out energy Absorbs
H is negative H is positive

Working out enthalpy changes
m=mass of water (g)
c=specific heat capacity of water (4.18J g-1K-1)
T=the change in temperature of the water
This is divided by the number of moles of fuel to get enthalpy change of…

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Enthalpy changes of combustion

H of the reactants is going with the arrow so we add and H of the products is going
against so we minus.

Reaction Rates

Increasing concentration means the particles are closer together so they will
collide more often. More collisions mean more chances to react.…

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The presence of a catalyst lowers activation energy which means more
molecules have enough energy to overcome activation energy.

Dynamic Equilibrium

Le Chatelier's principle: When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to
change, the position of equilibrium will shift to minimise the change.

Increase concentration of reactants and the…

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As the bonds in these compounds vibrate more, the molecules gain kinetic energy
which increases the temperature of these gases. They can also transfer the kinetic
energy to other molecules in the atmosphere by collision, so the whole atmosphere
gets warmer. These gases are called greenhouse gases!
The "greenhouse effect"…


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