Chemistry C1

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What is the structure of an atom?
Atoms have a nucleus with positively charged protons and neutral neutrons in it. Around the outside of this are electrons that circle on shells.
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What are ions?
Charged particles.
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What do additives do?
1. Colour food. 2. Enhance flavours or colours. 3. Antioxidants preserve food. 4. Emulsifiers prevent foods from separating.
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What do emulsifiers do?
They prevent foods such as mayonnaise from splitting.
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How do they do this?
An emulsifier molecule has a hydrophilic head which "loves" water and a hydrophobic tail which "hates" water. The hydrophobic tail will join to things like oil, whereas the hydrophilic head will join to water, making sure the two don't separate.
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What does cooking do?
1. Gives a better taste and texture. 2. It makes it easier to digest. 3. Kills microbes. 4. Makes food not poisonous.
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What chemical changes does cooking cause?
1. It denatures proteins in things like eggs and meat. 2. It breaks down the cellulose cell wall in things like potatoes, making it easier to digest.
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What is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of baking powder?
Sodium Hydrogencarbonate > Sodium Carbonate + Carbon Dioxide + Water
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What is the general word equation for making Esters?
Acid + Alcohol > Ester + Water
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What properties do perfumes need?
1. High volatility. 2. Non-toxic. 3. Non-reactive with water. 4. Non-irritating to the skin. 5. Insoluble in water.
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What is volatility?
How easily something evaporates.
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What is a solution?
"A mixture of a solute and a solvent that does not separate out." - CGP Revision Guide
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Why is nail polish soluble in acetone, not water?
The attraction between the nail polish and acetone particles are greater than those holding them together. It is the other case in the attraction between water and nail polish.
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Name some examples of solvents.
1. Alcohols. 2. Esters. 3. Naphthalene (found in moth balls).
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What are the three main "ingredients" in paint?
1. Solvent. 2. Binding Medium. 3. Pigment.
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What is a colloid?
A substance with lots of tiny particles of one thing mixed in with another kind of thing. They are mixed, NOT dissolved. (e.g. pigments dispersed in the paint solution.)
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Why don't paints separate?
The pigment particles are son tiny, they can't settle out on the bottom.
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Why are emulsion paints good for painting walls?
They are water based, and therefore dry quickly. They also don't release harmful fumes.
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What are thermochromic pigments?
They are pigments of paint that change colour when heated or cooled.
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what products use thermochromic paints?
1. Novelty mugs. 2. Baby spoons and toys. 3. Fancy kettles. 4. Mood rings.
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What are phosphorescent pigments?
They are pigments that absorb light and store the energy, before releasing it when it's dark as light. They glow in the dark.
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What products use phosphorescent paints?
1. Watches or clocks with glow in the dark hands. 2. Traffic signs. 3. Fire escape signs. 4. Toys. 5. Novelty decorations.
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Before phosphorescent pigments were discovered, what made watch hands glow in the dark?
Radioactive paints.
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What are polymers?
Long-chain molecules which make up plastics.
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What are polymers made from?
Lots of smaller molecules called monomers that are joined together by a process called polymerisation. (which needs high pressures and a catalyst to occur)
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What are addition polymers made from?
Unsaturated monomers (monomers that have at least one double covalent bond between the carbon atoms)
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What do weak forces between the chains in plastic result in?
Plastic which is easily stretched and has a low melting point.
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What do strong forces between the chains in plastic result in?
A rigid, in-elastic plastic with a high melting point.
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What are polymers used for?
Milk bottles (strong & rigid), Plastic bags & squeezy bottles (Light & stretchy), Window frames (PVC), Synthetic leather (PVC (elastic/stretchy)), Packaging (polystyrene foam)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are ions?


Charged particles.

Card 3


What do additives do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do emulsifiers do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do they do this?


Preview of the front of card 5
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