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1.Define atom
The smallest particle of matter
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2.Define molecule
A small particle made from more than one atom bonded together
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3.Define element
A substance made of only one type of atom
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4.Define compound
A substance made from two or more different elements bonded together
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5.Define mixture
A substance made from two or more elements or compounds mixed but not joined
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6. Name the properties of a solid
•Have a fixed shape •Can’t be compressed •Particles close together in a regular pattern •Particles vibrate around a fixed point
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7.Name the properties of a liquid
Liquids •Take the shape of their container •Can’t be compressed •Particles close together but disordered •Particles move freely
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8.Name the properties of a gas
Gases •Take the shape of their container •Can be compressed •Particles widely spaced in random order •Particles moving very fast.
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9.Describe the forces of attraction in a solid
In a solid, the forces of attraction are strongest, holding the particles tightly in position. As the solid is heated, and the particles vibrate faster, these forces are partially overcome allowing the particles to move freely as a liquid – melting
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10. Describe the forces of attraction in a liquid
As the liquid is heated more, the particles gain so much energy that the forces of attraction break completely allowing particles to ‘fly around’ as a gas – this is called boiling. The reverse of the these processes are condensing and freezing.
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11.Describe the forces of attraction in a gas
Under specific conditions, some solids can turn straight to gases – a process called subliming (the reverse is called desubliming).
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12.Explain electron arrangement
Electrons are arranged around atoms in specific shells. The most important shell is the outer one as this controls an atom’s chemistry. We call the electrons in the outer shell ‘valence electrons’ because they are used for bonding.
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13.Explain how the proton number links to the atom
The number of electrons around an atom is given by the atom’s proton number. They are arranged in shells as follows: •1st Shell – Holds two electrons •2nd/3rd/4th Shells – Hold 8 electrons
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14.Explain what a noble gas is and mention the compound that are defined as noble gasses
The Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar etc) have full outer shells containing either 2 or 8 electrons. This is very stable which is why the Noble gases are so unreactive.
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15. What is gas configuration
Other elements tend to react in such a way as to achieve a full outer shell by gaining or losing electrons until they achieve this Noble Gas configuration.
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Chemical changes make new substances whereas physical changes do not.
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Periods: The rows in the periodic table. •For example Li, C and O are all in period 2. Groups: The columns in the PT. •Use roman numbers:. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) •Eg. F, Cl, Br, I are all in different periods but same group
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18.Define isotopes
Isotopes are atoms with the same proton number but different nucleon number.
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19.Atomic structure
Atoms are made of: Protons: mass = 1, charge = +1 Neutrons: mass = 1, charge = 0 Electrons: mass = 0, charge = -1
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20.What the element is:
In a square on the periodic table the smaller number, the proton number, gives the number of protons or electrons and the bigger number, the nucleon number the number of protons and neutrons together
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21.Molecules and it's properties
MOLECULES A molecule is a small particle made from (usually) a few non-metal atoms bonded together. The atoms in a molecule are joined by strong covalent bonds. In a solid each molecule is held close to its neighbour by weak intermolecular forces
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22. Intermolecular forces
When a substance melts, it is these weak intermolecular forces that break NOT the strong covalent bonds.Molecular compounds have low melting points and (evaporate easily) due to the weak intermolecular forces,
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A crystal made of a repeating pattern of atoms joined with covalent bonds that repeats millions of times in all directions.
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24.Examples of giant covalent bonds
Diamond ,Graphite and Silicon (IV) oxide
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25.Diamond properties
Diamond is made of carbon atoms arranged so that each C is bonded in a pyramid arrangement to 4 others. This makes it very hard, ideal for use in industrial drills:
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26.Graphite properties
Graphite: made of carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal sheets with long weak bonds between the sheets. This means the sheets can easily separate making graphite a good lubricant:
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27.Silicon (IV) oxide properties
Silicon (IV) oxide (SiO2) has a structure with each Si joined to 4 O and each O joined to 2 Si. It is the main ingredient in glass
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The positive and negative ions in an ionic compound don’t form molecules but form crystals made of a repeating pattern of positive and negative ions called a giant ionic lattice. Eg sodium chloride:
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29.Define ionic bonding
An ionic bond is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Cations (positive) are formed when atoms (usually metals) lose electrons. Anions (negative) are formed when atoms (usually nonmetals) gain electrons.
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Atoms will lose or gain electrons until they have a complete outer shell: elements in Groups I, II and III will lose 1, 2 and 3 electrons respectively to form 1+, 2+ and 3+ ions. Atoms in Groups V, VI and VII gain 3, 2 and 1 electrons to form -'s
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31.Define covalent bonds
A covalent bond forms between two atoms and is the attraction of two atoms to a shared pair of electrons. Small groups of covalent bonded atoms can join together to form molecules
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32. properties of ionic compounds
When you melt or dissolve an ionic compound it conducts electricity because the ions are free to move towards the positive and negative electrodes. When solid the ions are stuck in position and there are no free electrons so they don’t conduct.
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Cathode= Metal= Metal, except with reactive metals (K, Na, Li Ca, Mg) in which case H2 gas is produced plus a solution of metal hydroxid
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Anode Non-metal Non Metal, except sulphates in which case O2
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35. Define electrolysis
Electrolysis is a process in which electricity is used to break compounds down into their elements. The mixture being electrolysed is called an electrolyte and must be liquid (either melted or dissolved) to allow the ions to move.
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Cations (positive ions – remember they are ’puss-itive’) move to the cathode (the negative electrode) where they gain electrons, usually forming a metal (or H2).
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Anions (negative ions) move to the anode (the positive electrode) where they lose electrons, usually forming a non-metal (other than H2).
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38. Explain electrolysis of copper chloride
39. Explain electrolysis of copper sulfate
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42.Define exothermic reactions
Exothermic reactions get hotter – the temperature increases. The energy given out can be used to keep the reaction going so that once started, they don’t stop until they have run out of reactants.
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43. Examples
•Combustion of fuels •Acid-base neutralisations •Displacement reactions •Respiration in cells
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44.Define endothermic reactions
Endothermic reactions reactions get colder – the temperature decreases. Generally endothermic reactions need a constant energy supply to keep them going
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•Dissolving of many (but not all) salts •Thermal decompositions •Photosynthesis •Cooking!!!
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46. Energy changes ,endothermic
In endothermic reactions, heat energy gets converted to chemical energy. The products have more chemical energy than the reactants and the difference between the two is the energy that has to be supplied to make the reaction go
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47. Energy changes, exothermic
In exothermic reactions, chemical energy stored in the reactants gets converted to heat energy. The products have less chemical energy than the reactants and the difference is the amount of heat released.
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48.Testing Hydrogen
A test tube of hydrogen produces a ‘squeaky pop’ with a lighted splint
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49. Testing oxygen
A test tube of oxygen can re-light a glowing splint
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50.Testing chlorine
•Bleaches the colour from damp litmus paper
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51.Testing ammonia
Turns damp red litmus paper blue
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52.Testing carbon dioxide
Turns limewater cloudy.
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2.Define molecule


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5.Define mixture


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