Chemi Unit 4 OCR

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delocalised electrons
are shared between more than two atoms
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addition reaction
is one in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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substitution reaction
is one in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms
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electrophile
is an atom that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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electrophilic substitution
is a type of substitution in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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reaction mechanism
is a series of steps that, together, make up the overall reaction
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curly arrow
is a symbol used to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of covalent bonds
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functional group
is the part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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electronegativity
is a measure of attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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stem
the longest carbon chain present in an organic molecule
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suffix
is the part of the name added after the stem
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redox reaction
is one in which both reduction and oxidation take place
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reflux
is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
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nucleophile
is an atom or group of atoms attracted to an electron-defcient centre, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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esterification
a reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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hydrolysis
is a reaction with water or hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds
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Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
is responsible for carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues
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high-density lipoproteins (HDL)
can remove cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilisation
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peptide
a compound made of amino acids liked by peptide bonds
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zwitterion
is a dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that is formed by the donation of a hydrocarbon ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. because both charges are present there is no overall change
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isoelectric point
the pH value at which the amino acid exists as a zwittterion
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condensation reaction
is one in which two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of small molecule such as water
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stereoisomers
are species with the same structural formula but with different arrangement of the atoms in space
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chiral carbon
is a carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms
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optical isomers
are stereoisomers that are non-superimposible mirror images of each other
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biodegradable polymer
is a polymer that breaks down completely to form carbon dioxide and water
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degradable polymer
is a polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture
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a phase
is a physical distinctive form of a substance, such as the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of ordinary matter
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mobile phase
is the phase that moves in chromatography
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stationary phase
is the phase that does not move in chromatography
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adsorption
is the process by which a solid holds molecules of a gas or liquid or solute as a thin film on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid
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chromatography
is a visible record showing the result of separation of the components of a mixture by chromatography
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retention time
in gas chromatography is the time for a component to pass from the column inlet to the detector
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Chemical shift
is a scale that compares the frequency of an NMR absorption with the frequency of the reference peak of TMS at =0 ppm
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

addition reaction

Back

is one in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule

Card 3

Front

substitution reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

electrophile

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

electrophilic substitution

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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