Carbohydrates - OCR

Revision notes on carbohydrates for the Biochemistry module of A2 Chemistry.

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Carbohydrates simplest in its form are monosaccharides, [Cn(H2O)n). These include molecules such
-Glucose C6H12O6
-Fructose C6H12O6
-Ribose C5H10O5
Open chain structures
(Ketose Sugar)
(Aldose Sugar)
Ring Structures
Alpha () Glucose Beta () Glucose
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Maltose= Glucose + Glucose
1 4, Glycosidic linkage
Cellobiose= Glucose+ Glucose
1 4, Glycosidic linkage
Example exam Q.
Q. Why do monosaccharides dissolve in water?
These molecules are polar
They can form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules
Which replace the hydrogen bonds already formed between the water molecules.…read more

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It branches every 20-30 unit
1 4, glycosidic linkages and
1 6, glycosidic linkages
Molecules is a complex 3D shape
up to 1 x 106 glucose units
o Glycogen
Structure very much like amylopectin but
Branches more extensively, every 8 ­ 12 glucose units
Glycogen and starch (Amylose and Amylopectin) are used as storage polysaccharides. They are:-
1. Easily broken down
Catalysed by enzymes and so the quantity of glucose broken down is controlled
2.…read more

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Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
1. Dilute acid at 70°C (1.0 mol dm-3 of HCl)
2. Enzyme Hydrolysis
o very specific due to complementary recognition of shape
Use of immobilised enzymes
Turning glucose into fructose with Glucose isomerise
Cows and other `Ruminants'
Bacteria within these animals actually break down cellulose to produce molecules the cow
can actually absorb.…read more


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