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Carbohydrates simplest in its form are monosaccharides, [Cn(H2O)n). These include molecules such
-Glucose C6H12O6
-Fructose C6H12O6
-Ribose C5H10O5

Open chain structures

(Ketose Sugar)


(Aldose Sugar)

Ring Structures

Alpha () Glucose Beta () Glucose

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Maltose= Glucose + Glucose

1 4, Glycosidic linkage

Cellobiose= Glucose+ Glucose

1 4, Glycosidic linkage

Example exam Q.
Q. Why do monosaccharides dissolve in water?

These molecules are polar
They can form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules
Which replace the hydrogen bonds already formed between the water molecules.…

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o Amylopectin
It branches every 20-30 unit
1 4, glycosidic linkages and
1 6, glycosidic linkages
Molecules is a complex 3D shape
up to 1 x 106 glucose units

o Glycogen
Structure very much like amylopectin but
Branches more extensively, every 8 ­ 12 glucose units

Glycogen and starch…

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Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

1. Dilute acid at 70°C (1.0 mol dm-3 of HCl)

2. Enzyme Hydrolysis

o very specific due to complementary recognition of shape

Use of immobilised enzymes

Turning glucose into fructose with Glucose isomerise

Cows and other `Ruminants'

Bacteria within these animals actually break down cellulose…


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