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1. What is neoplastic transformation?

  • Causes a permanent activation
  • cooperation of multiple genetic changes within a cell
  • A gene which encodes signalling molecules that can act as Growth factors, protein kinases and transcription factors that activates gene expression
  • Conversion of a normal cell to a malignant cell
  • a gene when mutated or expressed at a high level turns a normal cell into a malignant one
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2. What does the tumour supressor gene do?

  • The proteins can't initiate apoptosis if DNA damage is irreparable
  • Can't induce growth arrest at G1/S regulation point (restriction point)
  • They code for proteins that control cell cycle progression/proliferation (many of which are check point genes.
  • e.g.P35 gene encoded by the TP53 gene on the short arm of chromosome 17 and regulates cell cycle
  • They code for signalling proteins that codes signalling molecules e.g growth factors, protein kinase and transcription factor

3. How can Mitotic crossover play a role in cancer?

  • It is an event where a cancer causing reccesive allele may be expressed and thus predispose the cell causing development of cancer
  • It does not play a role
  • It is an event where a cancer causing dominant allele is sometimes expressed and thus predispose the cell causing development of cancer

4. How is proliferation controlled in normal cells

  • Activate oncogenes transiently (i.e for a short by mitogens) and INactivate tumour suppressor genes transeintly
  • Uncontroled activation of oncogenes and deactivation of tumour supressor genes

5. BCR ABL kinases don't

  • initiate abnormal signalling pathways
  • Initiate denaturing of checkpoint proteins
  • initiate deregulation of signalling network
  • transcriptional deregulation of cell


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