Cancer is a series of diseases of a tissue grow in an uncontrolled way, due to buildup of mutations in the cell genome.Research has shown about 6/7 key genes needed to be mutated to cause a tissue to become a cancer. Molecular studies had identified 2 major types of cancer gene, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes.Genomic methodology changed the approach to cancer researchfrom being hypothesis-driven to methodology driven.There are four techniques used which include:
Â·Expression profilingâ€“ using micro â€“arrays to find out all the different types of mRNA made in cancer.
Â·Comparative genome-hybridization to map changes in the structure of the cancer genome.
Â·DNA methylationâ€“ to identify changes that could lead to changed gene expression
Â·Exome sequencing â€“to map all the protein mutations that have occurred in the cancer
Taken together the techniques provided the cancer cell oh undergone:
1.Biochemical pathways of growth control that are changed in the cancer
2.Possible new targets for cancer therapy
3.Possible ways of distinguishing between sub-types of cancer
4.Possible identification of sets of markers that can be used to predict prognosis and response to a particular therapy