Cancer is a series of diseases of a tissue grow in an uncontrolled way, due to buildup of mutations in the cell genome.Research has shown about 6/7 key genes needed to be mutated to cause a tissue to become a cancer. Molecular studies had identified 2 major types of cancer gene, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes.Genomic methodology changed the approach to cancer researchfrom being hypothesis-driven to methodology driven.There are four techniques used which include:
·Expression profiling– using micro –arrays to find out all the different types of mRNA made in cancer.
·Comparative genome-hybridization to map changes in the structure of the cancer genome.
·DNA methylation– to identify changes that could lead to changed gene expression
·Exome sequencing –to map all the protein mutations that have occurred in the cancer
Taken together the techniques provided the cancer cell oh undergone:
1.Biochemical pathways of growth control that are changed in the cancer
2.Possible new targets for cancer therapy
3.Possible ways of distinguishing between sub-types of cancer
4.Possible identification of sets of markers that can be used to predict prognosis and response to a particular therapy