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  • Created by: sainab
  • Created on: 14-05-14 09:29
Preview of genes

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Cancer is a series of diseases of a tissue grow in an uncontrolled way, due to buildup of
mutations in the cell genome. Research has shown about 6/7 key genes needed to be
mutated to cause a tissue to become a cancer. Molecular studies had identified 2 major types of
cancer gene, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Genomic methodology changed the
approach to cancer research from being hypothesis-driven to methodology driven. There are four
techniques used which include:
Expression profiling ­ using micro ­arrays to find out all the different types of mRNA made in
Comparative genome- hybridization to map changes in the structure of the cancer genome.
DNA methylation ­ to identify changes that could lead to changed gene expression
Exome sequencing ­ to map all the protein mutations that have occurred in the cancer
Taken together the techniques provided the cancer cell oh undergone:
1. Biochemical pathways of growth control that are changed in the cancer
2. Possible new targets for cancer therapy
3. Possible ways of distinguishing between sub-types of cancer
4. Possible identification of sets of markers that can be used to predict prognosis and
response to a particular therapy


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