C1 Carbon Chemistry OCR Gateway Revision

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Name 3 Fossil Fuels
Coal, Natural Gas and Crude Oil
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Give some examples of renewable energy sources
Wind Power, Solar Power and Biomas
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Give examples of non-renewable energy sources
Coal, Natural Gas and Crude Oil
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What is meant by non-renewable?
Sources of energy that can not be replaced once it has been used up. They take a long time to make and and are currently being used up far quicker than they are being made.
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What is fractional distillation?
A process by which crude oil is SEPARATED into different sized 'fractions'.
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How does fractional distillation work?
Each fraction has a different boiling point and condenses at different temperatures
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Give some examples of products obtained from fractional distillation
LPG, petrol, diesel, paraffin, heating oil, fuel oil and bitumen
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Which two gases can be found in LPG?
Propane and Butane
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Give two examples of environmental problems involved in using crude oil
1. Oil Slicks/Spills when there are accidents with the ships that carry the oil. 2. Damage to wildlife on the beaches as a result of the oil spills
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Describe what 'cracking' is and why this process is carried out on an industrial scale?
1. Converts large chain hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones. 2. A catalyst is used to speed up the process. 3. More petrol can be made to meet demand.
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of many different types of hydrocarbons that are different
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Describe how fractional distillation occurs
Crude oil is heated, there is a temperature gradient in the fractionating column, smaller more useful moleculesexit towards the top of the column with larger fractions exiting towards the bottom.
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What are the factors that you need to consider when choosing a fuel for a particular process?
Energy value, availability, storage, cost, toxicity, pollution and ease of use.
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What type of energy is released during combustion?
Heat
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What is needed for complete combustion to occur?
Fuel and plentiful air containing oxygen ( Fuel + Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + Water)
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Give an example of incomplete combustion occurring in the school laboratory?
Orange/Yellow Bunsen burner flame.
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Give a word equation for incomplete combustion.
Fuel --> Carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) + Water
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Which gas produced from combustion is toxic to humans?
Carbon monoxide
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Which main gases can be found in our atmosphere? At what percentages do they occur?
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen(21%), Carbon Dioxide (0.035%) and Water Vapour
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What effect does Photosynthesis have on the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere?
Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to make carbohydrates in the plant. It therefore reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere
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What effect does Respiration have on the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere?
Respiration uses glucose and oxygen to make energy for an organism to use. It produces water and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and it therefore increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
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What is carbon monoxide?
A poisonous gas formed from incomplete combustion of petrol and diesel in car engines
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What are nitrogen oxides?
It causes photochemical smog and acid rain and they are formed in the internal combustion engine.
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What is sulfur dioxide?
It causes acid rain that will kill plant, aquatic life, erode stonework and corrode metals. It is formed when sulfur impurities burn in fossil fuels.
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What does a catalytic converts do?
Removes carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes from a car. 2CO + 2NO --> N2 + 2CO2
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How has the present day atmosphere changed?
Original atmosphere was created by gases escaping from the earth (from volcanoes). Plants then photosynthesized to increase the amount of oxygen
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What two human influences can change the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
Populations increasing. Deforestation.
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What two elements can be found in a hydrocarbon?
Hydrogen and Carbon
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Name two types of hydrocarbon
Alkanes and Alkenes
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What is the polymer called when the monomer is Ethene?
Polyethene
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What does a monomer need to have in order to polymerise?
A double bond
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What is the general forumla for an alkane?
CnH2n+2
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What is the general forumla for an alkene?
CnH2n
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In a hydrocarbon, what type of bonds hold the two elements together?
Covalent
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How can we test of alkenes?
Bromine is decolourised from orange in the presence of an alkene
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Is an alkane saturated or unsaturated? How do we know this?
Saturated because there are 4 single covalent bonds coming from each carbon atom.
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What is nylon used for?
Making clothing
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What is nylon?
A 'designer' polymer. It is tough, lightweight and keeps water and UV radiation out but it also doesn't allow water from sweat out.
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What is GORE-TEX?
Like Nylon but it is 'breathable' which means that water vapour can get out.
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How do you know when a chemical reaction has taken place?
A new substance is made, the process is irreversible and there has been a change in energy.
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How do you know that cooking food is a chemical change?
A new substance is formed and the process can not be reversed.
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Name some types of food additives and why they are used
Antioxidants- Stops foods from reacting with oxygen. Colourings- give the food a more vibrant colour. Flavour enhancers to improve the taste and emulsifiers to help oil and water mix.
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How does baking powder (sodium hydrogen carbonate )work to make a cake rise?
Baking Powder thermally decomposes when heated to make sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide gas and water
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When meat is cooked we refer to the proteins as being...
Denatured
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Give one example of a natural and one man-made perfume
Natural- flowers and fruit. Artificial- Hugo Boss, Chanel and other perfumes (esters)
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What properties does a perfume need to have?
Evaporates easily, non-toxic, does not react with water or irritate the skin. Insoluble in water (washes off!)
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Esters are synthetic perfumes. What is needed to make one?
A acid (e.g. sulfuric acid) and a alcohol (e.g. butanol)
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What does volatility mean?
How easy something evaporates.
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What are the main ingredients in a paint?
A solvent (to thin the paint to make it easier to spread), a binding medium (to enable the pigment to stick to the surface) and the pigment (the substance that gives the paint its colour).
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What is a thermochromatic pigment?
A pigment that changed colour when there is a change in temperature
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What is a phosphorescent pigment?
A pigment that can glow in the dark.
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What is a colloid?
Particles that are mixed and dispersed with the particles of a liquid but they are not dissolved but can not be separated.
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How do paints dry?
Paint is applied in a small layer and the solvent evaporates.
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What was used instead of phosphorescent pigments in wristwatches to make them glow in the dark?
Radioactive substances
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Card 2

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Give some examples of renewable energy sources

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Wind Power, Solar Power and Biomas

Card 3

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Give examples of non-renewable energy sources

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is meant by non-renewable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is fractional distillation?

Back

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