- H+ Electrons lost to anode 2H2---> 4H + 4e-
- H+ electrons Oxygen atoms combine O2 + 4H+ +4e- ---> 2H20
- H+ ions can pass across membranes in electrolysis- protone exchange membrane.
Alcohols and Fermentation
- Makes ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.
- C6H12O6 ----> 2C2H5OH + CO2
- Anaerobic respiration (no oxygen) otherwise it makes vinegar (ethanoic acid.)
- Water and yeast needed.
- 37c- optimum for zymase enzymes.
- Used as: drink, solvents and fuels.
Hydration and Dehydration of Ethene
Salts and Ethanol's
- Hydration catalyst= Hot Phosphoric acid.
- Dehydration catalyst= Hot Aluminium oxide.
- Hydration= C2H4 + H2O ---> C2H5OH
- Dehydration= C2H5OH ---> C2H4 + H2O
- Alcohol Fermentation Pro's:- Carbon neutral, renewable, house hold waste used.
- Hydration of Ethene Pro's:- Cheaper, not enough land in UK so it's more economical not to grow crops.
- Alcohol Fermentation Con's:- Growing crops means large areas are deforested, not efficient with transport, difficult to make high concentrations of alcohol.
- Hydration of Ethene Con's:- Non-renewable we need to find an alternative fuel!
- Loss (of electrons)
- Gain (of electrons
Sacrificial protection:- Bolt block of a more reactive metals onto the hull of a ship e.g. Zinc and that displaces and stops the ship from rusting.
Ozone is destroyed by CFC's, Ozone is O3:-
- 1. Initiation. Cl2 ---> Cl. + Cl. (Radicals on right)
- 2.Propagation. Cl. + O3 ---> OCl. + O2 then... (Radicals on both sides)
- OCl. + O3 ---> Cl 2O2 overall...
- O3 + O2 ---> O2 + 2O2 + 2O3
- 3. Termination. Cl. + Cl. ---> Cl2. (Radicals on left)
CFC's are:- Non toxic, non-flammable, odourless, tasteless and chemically stable.
Fats and Emulsions
- Fat= Solid.
- Oil = Liquid.
- Saturated Hydrocarbons= Single Bonds.
- Unsaturated Hydrocarbons= Double Bonds.
- Testing for unsaturated fats= Bromine water test.
- Soaps= Saponification (Making soaps).
- Fat + alkali= soap + glycerol.
- H4C2+ Br2 (orange) ---> H4C2Br (colourless).
- Hard water reacts with soap but not detergent to make a scum instead of bubbles. It's 'hard' to make bubbles.
- Temporary Hardness= H2CO3 + CaCO3 ---> Ca(HCO3)2, When boiled it can be made soft.
- Permanent Hardness= H2SO4 + CaCO3 ---> CaSO4 +H2O +CO2, Boiling doesn't remove Ca2+ ions, when heating CaSO4, no reaction is used. Sodium Carbonate is used.
- Ca2+ (aq) + CO3^2- (aq) ---> CaCO3 (s) used in washing powders e.g. Calgon.
- Weak acids remove limestone.
- Ion exchange resins include:- Calcium and Magnesium.
Asprin = C9H8O4 RFM= 180
Paracetamol = C8H9O2N RFM=151
Ibuprofen= C13H1802 RFM= 206
Costs Involved in Making Medicines
- Paying employees.
- Research and development.
- Drug testing and trials.
- Computer and hardware.
- Transporting drugs.
- Raw materials can be expensive.
- Covalent compounds= Not soluble in water.
- Ionic compounds= Soluble in Water
- Salicylic acid+ acetic anhydride ---> acetylsalicylate + acetic acid.
- Made in lab but can be found in the bark of willow trees.
- Numbs pain, anticoagulant, pain-killer and anti-inflammatory.
- Has large risks, but you generally throw up after overdose unlike paracetamol which kills.
- React acid with Na+ to make Aspirin soluble.