Chemistry GCSE OCR Gateway C6 Revision Cards

Chemistry GCSE OCR Gateway C6 Revision Cards- Chemistry Out There.

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Fuel Cells

  • H+ Electrons lost to anode 2H2---> 4H + 4e-
  • H+ electrons Oxygen atoms combine O2 + 4H+ +4e- ---> 2H20
  • H+ ions can pass across membranes in electrolysis- protone exchange membrane.


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Alcohols and Fermentation

  • Makes ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.
  • C6H12O6 ----> 2C2H5OH + CO2
  • Anaerobic respiration (no oxygen) otherwise it makes vinegar (ethanoic acid.)
  • Water and yeast needed.
  • 37c- optimum for zymase enzymes.
  • Used as: drink, solvents and fuels.


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Hydration and Dehydration of Ethene

Salts and Ethanol's

  • Hydration catalyst= Hot Phosphoric acid.
  • Dehydration catalyst= Hot Aluminium oxide.
  • Hydration= C2H4 + H2O ---> C2H5OH
  • Dehydration= C2H5OH ---> C2H4 + H2O
  • Alcohol Fermentation Pro's:- Carbon neutral, renewable, house hold waste used.
  • Hydration of Ethene Pro's:- Cheaper, not enough land in UK so it's more economical not to grow crops.
  • Alcohol Fermentation Con's:- Growing crops means large areas are deforested, not efficient with transport, difficult to make high concentrations of alcohol.
  • Hydration of Ethene Con's:- Non-renewable we need to find an alternative fuel!
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Redox Reactions

  • Oxidation
  • Is
  • Loss (of electrons)
  • Reduction
  • Is
  • Gain (of electrons

Sacrificial protection:- Bolt block of a more reactive metals onto the hull of a ship e.g. Zinc and that displaces and stops the ship from rusting.


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Ozone is destroyed by CFC's, Ozone is O3:-

  • 1. Initiation.     Cl2 ---> Cl. + Cl.                         (Radicals on right)
  • 2.Propagation. Cl. + O3 ---> OCl. + O2 then...    (Radicals on both sides)
  •                     OCl. + O3 ---> Cl 2O2     overall...
  •                       O3 + O2 ---> O2 + 2O2 + 2O3
  • 3. Termination. Cl. + Cl. ---> Cl2.                        (Radicals on left)

CFC's are:- Non toxic, non-flammable, odourless, tasteless and chemically stable.   


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Fats and Emulsions

  • Fat= Solid.
  • Oil = Liquid.
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons= Single Bonds.
  • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons= Double Bonds.
  • Testing for unsaturated fats= Bromine water test.
  • Soaps= Saponification (Making soaps).
  • Fat + alkali= soap + glycerol.
  • H4C2+ Br2  (orange) ---> H4C2Br (colourless).


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Hard Water

  • Hard water reacts with soap but not detergent to make a scum instead of bubbles. It's 'hard' to make bubbles.
  • Temporary Hardness= H2CO3 + CaCO3 ---> Ca(HCO3)2, When boiled it can be made soft.
  • Permanent Hardness= H2SO4 + CaCO3 ---> CaSO4 +H2O +CO2, Boiling doesn't remove Ca2+ ions, when heating CaSO4, no reaction is used. Sodium Carbonate is used.
  • Ca2+ (aq) + CO3^2- (aq) ---> CaCO3 (s) used in washing powders e.g. Calgon.
  • Weak acids remove limestone.
  • Ion exchange resins include:- Calcium and Magnesium. 


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Asprin = C9H8O4            RFM= 180

Paracetamol = C8H9O2N RFM=151

Ibuprofen= C13H1802      RFM= 206 


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Costs Involved in Making Medicines

  • Manufacturing.
  • Paying employees.
  • Research and development.
  • Drug testing and trials.
  • Energy.
  • Packaging.
  • Machinery.
  • Computer and hardware.
  • Transporting drugs.
  • Administration.
  • Raw materials can be expensive.


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  • Covalent compounds= Not soluble in water.
  • Ionic compounds= Soluble in Water
  • Salicylic acid+ acetic anhydride ---> acetylsalicylate + acetic acid.
  • Made in lab but can be found in the bark of willow trees.
  • Numbs pain, anticoagulant, pain-killer and anti-inflammatory.
  • Has large risks, but you generally throw up after overdose unlike paracetamol which kills.
  • React acid with Na+ to make Aspirin soluble.
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Becky Bu yeon Park

This is amazing! Thanks for sharing useful resources x Do you have C5 cards? because I can't fine one :(


Yes this is very useful! Many thanks!


Thank you for the feed back :-)

James Bogart

superb stuff thank you!


Do you have any c5 cards? The other two chemistry ones are great though! Thanks so much for putting them up!

emma evans

these cards are amazing, do you have the cards for c5 though, all of your resources are extremely helpful. i dont know what i would of done without them :)

Revision Mode

These are amazing, thank you soooooooo much!! :)



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