British History

Was it Churchill, who lost the conservatives the 1945 election?
'gestapo' speech showed he was a warmonger and looked arrogant mocking 'modest' Attlee.
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What else prevented the conservatives from winning?
a bad campaign they only spent £3,000 on their campaign and Memories of 'the hungry 30's'
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to refute this, why did labour win?
gained the public's trust Attlee in the wartime cabinet, captured the Zeitgeist with 'win the peace' and had popular policies .
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What were standout labour promises?
building 300,000 houses a year, NHS 'from cradle to grave', 'full employment' (98%), free secondary education for all, nationalisation, progressive taxation. stop-go
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Who was in the labour cabinet?
Attlee (1933-55 leader of labour)/ morrison (loyal to attlee) deputy/ dalton chancellor(nationalisation/ 47 resigns)/cripps chancellor (austerity)/ bevin (pro-america)/ bevan NHS (resigns 51)/ gaitskell chancellor
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What were the main developments of the implementing the NHS?
convincing BMA- Bevan had to "stuff their mouths with gold'" and allowing private practices.Because only 10% supported its introduction because of free of reduced pay and didn't want to be mere 'salaried civil servants'
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Give 6 NHS related facts.
20 million already had healthcare,187 million prescriptions, 5.25 million glasses, 8.5 million dental patients treated, NI only contributed 9% to NHS 1949, NHS costing £358 million a year
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What was in the beveridge report, which encouraged labour policies such as the NHS?
WIDSI want, ignorance, disease, squalor and idleness
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How did the developments of the NHS cause a split in the party?
introduction of prescription charges 1951; of the expense and they were fighting in the korean war (1950) created gaitskellites vs. bevanites
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Give 6 Housing related facts?
700,000 houses destroyed ,1/3 needed repairs,Target 300,000 houses built a year,'prefabs',families had to stay in disused army camps,1 million houses buillt, 4 council houses for every private house built.
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Give the education policies?
School meals and milk free,11+ programme; equal opportunity to go to university,25,000 teachers.
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Did labour reach full employment?
yes 1945 135,000,N.east most deprived: unemployment 1939- 38% 1951- 1.5%,
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What was clause 4 and was its impact?
Nationalisation, only 20% had of industry had been nationalised but nationalised iron and steel an already successful industry
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What and when were public utilities nationalised?
1946- coal 1947- electricity cables/wireless 1948- transport/rail /NHS/water 1949-gas 1951- iron and steel
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Who's Manny Shinwell ?
Ministry of power, during coldest winter of the decade 1947 when he didn't stockpile coal- coal provided 90% of power
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Economic problems meant Attlee did what in 1949?
Devalued the £ to encourage imports, $4.03 to $2.80
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Problems out of labour's control?
cancellation of US lend-lease left britain in finanicial dunkrik £3.75 million, war damaged industry- exports had fallen by 2/3, hard winter- 25% reductions in outputs, overseas commitments, austerity measures
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Success in the economy?
Industrial production up by 1/3, manufacturing helps to revive economy(cars), full employments, 3% GDP grow of whole economy, working with TUs
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How much debt was there and how much of a loan did the uk recieve from america?
£4198 debt loan of $6,000- suffered from dollar gap
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why did labour lose the 1951 election?
Attlee exhausted MP since 1922 contrasted dwith new conservative MP’s such as maulding and heath/Labour split- resignations/they seemed untrustworhy nationalising iron and steel/early election, bad campaign- conservatives raised a 1 million fo theirs
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Other reasons they lost the 1951 election?
Labour split-resignations,liberal votes went to conservative- fielded only 109,TU resentment slow to settle wage demands,1950 majority 5
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Describe the characters and following PM's, after Churchill's cabinet 1951-55, during this period of consensus?
Butler-Chancellor "butskellism"/MONCKTON- ministry of labour might have well of been labour! //Churchill /Eden-suez crisis1956/Macmillian-1951 maj100/Home-old etonian
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who were the chancellors during the '13 wasted years of tory misrule'
Thorney Croft 1957/Heathcoat-Armory 1958/Selwyn Lloyd 1960 'Pay Pause'/Maudling 1963 'sorry to leave it in such a mess old ****'
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What did churchill do while in office?
ended rationing /steel industry denationalised/reached housing target/end of korean war 1953/New elizabethan era/detonated first atomic bomb 1952
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What were key events from Macmillian's time in office?
1958 Notting Hill race riots,night of long knives 1962,the profumo affair 1963,EEC rejection 1963
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Why was Macmillian popular for the first few years 1957-1959 in charge?
'never had it so good'/ weekly wages between 1950-64 rose by £10/ credit-car sales went from 1.5 million to 5.5million, "class escalators are continually moving", 1957 rent act- 6 million properties on the market (more mortages) but rents increased
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When did Supermac lose his unflappable image?
night of long knives 1962 etc. increased inflation, unemployment 878,000 1963, stop-go economics- economy vulnerable 'to events, my dear boy, events', satire- beyond the fringe- peter cook, only 2.3% GDP france's 4.3%
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Why were Labour in opposition from 1951-1964?
internal disputes- stance against EEC,better tory campaign- economic recovery 'life is better with the conservaties'
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Why was wilson so appealing to voters?
young 47,smoked a pipe, liked HP, played gold, a meritocrat, who came from a grammar school, a working class lad from Huddersfield with simple tastes compared with toffy Home, seemed progressive 'swinging sixities', promised white heat
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why did the conservaties lose the 1964 election?
seen as weak/incapable- home did sums with matchsticks! He was an aristocrat who was out of touch with grouse moor mentality EEC rejection,scandals and unemployment 878,000 1963, 1/2 of cabinet etonians, social revolution against 'the establishment'
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Who were the key figures in wilson goverment?
George Brown DEA 1964-1967/James Callaghan Chancellor 1964-67 Devaluation of £ -resigns Home secretary 1967-70/Roy Jenkin Chancellor 1967-70/Tony Benn Ministry of technology/Andrew Crosland Education secretary/Barbara Castle Tackled the unions
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What problems did labour begin with in 1964?
won with a majority of 5,£800 million BOP, $ had a fixed against £, Unions disillused 6th in the world, whilst EEC was progessing, 2 million working days lost to strikes
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What had happened by 1965?
BOP £250 million,2.9 million working days lost to strikes,Post Office Tower opened,DEA- national plan forcasted 3.2% only 2.2%,circular 10/65 memo abolition of grammar schools, Race relations act, Abolished the death penalty, heath in opposition
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1966 was important for football but also, took place in this time of morale?
increased majority of 96, may- sailors and dockers on strike because of wage freezes, wilson calls them ‘politically motivated extremists’
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Give 1967's events? which changed the public's view of the government
iron and steel renationalised, abortion legalised, nov- De Gaulle vetoes entry in EEC, pound devaluated
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What happened in 1968?
Jan- cuts to welfare and defense/June- open univeristy chartered/Sept- censorship of the theatre ends./
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1969 Why was it such a disaster?
Jan- Barbara castle attempts to reform TUs/Apr- Voting age lowered to 18/oct- divorce made easier/DEA abolished
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What were the final things to happen in 1970's britian?
May- equal pay act introduced/Wilson lost the election to heath despite opinion polls
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What economic difficulties did labour have?Was it really that bad?
Denis Healey’s defense cuts by 1971 spending down from 6% to 4%,pound devalued by 14% ‘ pound in your pocket not devalued’ but public spending up 38%, £550 surplus,
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Why did the unions beat Wilson? Mention the union troubles.
Wilson's paranoia-1966 sailors and dockers strike,unions feel just; are angered by 'in place of strife' 100,000 strike against it and opposition within party-callaghan,flying pickets, 1969 6.8 million days lost to strikes
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The 'permissive society' meant, what? linked to Roy Jenkins
race relations/abortion act/sexual offences act/ common wealth immigration act/threatre act/abolition of death penalty/ divorce reform/ open university BUT VIETNAM no condemnation- grovernor square 1968 riot
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Why did labour lose the 1970 election?
wilson's 'short-term gimmitry',trade figures,union opposition, devaluation by 14%. 150,000 labours member left between 1964-70, some labour votes attrached to powell "rivers of blood speech", out of touch 6.8 million strike 1969
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Why he shouldn't have lost the 1970 election?
£550 surplus, opinion polls, lowest income went up 104%, social reforms liked by the majority e.g. Divorce Reform Act 1968,economy improved campared to the last government
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Other Success facts?
pensions up 20%, 16 new schools built a week, spending on hospital 100% up, 2 million houses built more than conservative record
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Why did Heath win?
"selsdon man"- tough image: tough on law and order and free market "quite revolution"
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How is Heath committed to the free market?
He wants less government interferences, personal ownership
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Describe Heath's career before being PM?
sailor ted- won with his yacht 'morning cloud'- seemed capable, chief negoitator from macmillian's EEC entry,served in the military
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What is Heath remember for?
"tommorrow will be better than today", 1971 decimalisation, 1973 EEC entry paid in more than we recieved,ecapism- music transition to glam rock, 1972 miners strike 23 million working days lost to strikes, bloody sunday 13 died, 3 day week
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How did the unions defeat Heath?
industrial relations act lead to NUM strike of 280,000 wanting a 45% pay rise, they recieved 21% with wild cat strikes and flying pickets- gormley nearly sort out deal of washing times, 1973 3 day week;1974 miners strike "who governs?"
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How did he U-turn?
inflation 15%; price and incomes policy,'lame duck' companies bailed out Rolls-Royce nationalised and upper clyde shipbuilders given £34million
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What other policies did he implement?
£550,000 tax cuts "barber boom", reduced government spending less council house subsidies, withdrawal of free school milk local government act-greater manchester, housing finance act- right to buy council houses, mortages easier to get
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Why was the 3 day week so damaging?
'britain back in the dark ages' the government seemed powerless, it was caused by the oil-crisis where britian supported israel this meant the opposing OPEC country put barrels up from $2 to £35 and the miners strike cut coal supplies
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Why was the 1973 entry a success but still disappointing
access to european markets,development grants, status but Uk was now unable to buy cheap goods from the commonwealth adding £1000 Cap to annual food bills,VAT increased to 17.5%, De gaulle did retire, paid in more than received
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Why did Wilson win the 1974 election?
1 million unemployed 1972,satire heath-co failing company to mock strikes,1st miners strike since 1926 general strike,more working days lost in heath's 20 months than in wilson's 6 years,couldn't make a coalition
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Why did wilson only stay in until 1976?
retired early from old age and stress, said he would retire at 60,he had the same old solutions
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1975 – one of his major moves was?
Europe referendum attempt to placate the unions and left who regarded it as a capitalist club, “The Durham miners don’t like it” – majority voted “yes”
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What did healey have to do to solve Britain's economic problems?
IMF crisis, 1976 – Healey had to negotiate £3 million loan – required huge spending cuts – outraged left, ALSO, there was inflation from oil crisis led to pound dropping below $2
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The unions Again ! deeper in to the 70's
tried to keep pay rise at 5% “British disease” 16800 strikes between 1974 and 1979 – 1977 firemen’s strike caused state of emergency – Ford started 1979 giving its workers 15% pay rise
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What was the winter of discontent 1979?
January 22nd saw 1.5 million workers strike – school meals service disrupted, grave diggers left dead bodies unburied and refuse uncollected – Callaghan denied a crisis
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What were the problems staying power?
Small majority never more than 3,relied on 1977 Lib-Lab pact, 1979 no majority lost vote of no confidence;went into the election with low morale,Election timing – failed to call election in autumn 1978 when support was picking up
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Give some successes of Callaghan's government?
social reforms health and safety act 1974, race discrimination, inflation reduced from 30% to 7%,1978 britian on its way to being self-sufficient in gas and oil (North Sea Oil), stayed in with low maj, BOP better than 74
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Thatcher’s 1979 election victory why?
Winter of discontent – government had lost control,People were willing to take any alternative,Not that tories won the election- it was that Labour lost it, election timing
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How did Thatcher want to break from the consensus?
abandoned Keynesianism-monetarism instead,she changed the focus from unemployment to inflation,taking £900 million out of spending,inflation dropped from 19% to 5% by 1983 – but unemployment exceeded 2 million,
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Thatcher losing popularity?
Rugged individualism; social unrest 1981 riots Brixton, toxteth,frustration at unemployment saw this as laziness – Tebbit spoke of his father who “got on his bike and looked for work...until he found it”
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What saved Thatcher?
Falklands war, she played on British patriotism and her popularity soared – she won the 1983 election with a majority of 144
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What were her policies?
Deregulation removal of restrictions 'right to buy',Privatisation increased “popular capitalism”shareholders rose from 3 to 9 million-it raised £47 billion,Tax lowered standard income tax rate from 33% to 30% highest rate from 83%- 60%
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What was her relation with the Europe?
against her principles – disparity in budget payments rewarded inefficiency and penalised productivity - spoke for hours on end to EEC leaders demanding “our money back”
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The Miners’ strikes, 1984-1985 why did it fail?
personality clashes Scargill vs Ian McGregor,stockpiled coal,trained police,Scargill refused to hold a ballot,Employment Acts of 1980 and 1982 forbade mass picketing and “closed shop”,biased media reporting and 65% supported gvt, miners broke strikes
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Why did she want to close the mines?
uncompromise leader demanded 20 unprofitable mine closures,unions argued mines could have a profitable future,social as well as economic.WANTED TO DESTORY UNIONS
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What U-turns did she make?
£990 million given to British Leyland closure would have caused Midlands redundancies where there were a large number of marginal seats,• Europe – in 1986 Thatcher accepted the Single European Act – led to greater centralisation
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What were Labour like during the thatcher's year in office?
Michael Foot out of touch with the electorate very left-wing with unrealistic and unpopular policies the manifesto “the longest suicide note in history”gang of four” Roy Jenkins broke from Labour SDP split vote,Kinnock’s u-turns on reforms
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How much was the labour majority in 1945?
A majority of 146.
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What was the rainy day fund?
national insurance
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What economic policy did labour have?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What else prevented the conservatives from winning?


a bad campaign they only spent £3,000 on their campaign and Memories of 'the hungry 30's'

Card 3


to refute this, why did labour win?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What were standout labour promises?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who was in the labour cabinet?


Preview of the front of card 5
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