Biology 1A - Human Biology: Fighting Disease

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What are the two main types of Pathogen?
Bacteria and Virus
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Bacteria are very small what?
Living cells
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Bacteria reproduce rapidly inside your body. They make you feel ill by:
1. Damaging your cells. 2. Producing Toxins
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How do viruses copy themselves?
They invade cells and use the cells' machinery to make tons of copies.
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How do viruses release themselves from cells?
The cell will, after being filled with tons of copies of the virus, burst. This releases the new viruses.
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What part of this makes you feel ill?
The cell damage.
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How does your skin protect you from pathogens when it gets cut?
If your skin is cut, tiny bits of cells help your blood clot quickly to stop anything getting in.
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If something gets into your body, the immune system kicks in. What is the most important part of your immune system?
Your white blood cells.
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When white blood cells come across a pathogen, they have three lines of attack. Name them.
1. Consuming them 2. Producing antibodies 3. Producing antitoxins
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What happens when a white blood cell consumes a pathogen?
It can engulf (surround) the pathogens and digest them.
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What happens when a white blood cell produces antibodies to deal with a pathogen?
Pathogens have unique molecules on their surface. These are called antigens. Antibodies (Produced by the cells) lock onto and kill the invading pathogens. The antibodies produced are specific to that type of antigen.
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What happens when a white blood cell produces antitoxins to deal with a pathogen?
These antitoxins stop toxins produced by the invading bacteria.
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What are vaccinations used for?
To protect from future protections.
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How do vaccines work?
1. Vaccines insert small dead or inactive amounts of pathogens into your body. 2. The white blood cells create suitable antibodies without any risk of harm. 3. If infected later, white blood cells can produce antibodies rapidly.
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Name two pros of vaccination.
1. Vaccines have helped control lots of infectious disease that used to be common in the UK. 2. An epidemic can be prevented if lots of people are vaccinated.
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Name two cons of vaccination.
1. They don't always work. 2. You can sometimes have a bad reaction to a vaccine, eg. swelling or a fever.
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What type of drug reduces the symptom of a disease?
Painkiller.
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What type of drug kills the pathogen?
Antibiotics.
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Why don't antibiotics destroy viruses?
Viruses reproduce using your own body cells, making it very difficult to develop drugs that destroy the virus but not the body's cells.
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Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. How?
They mutate, causing resistance. These resistant strains have increased as a result of natural selection.
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Which doctor cut death rates in hospitals by using antiseptics?
Ignaz Semmelweis.
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How did Ignaz Semmelweis cut deaths?
1. He saw that lots of women were dying after birth because the doctors were spreading disease on their unwashed hands. 2. He told doctors to wash their hands in an antiseptic solution before seeing patients. 3. This cut deaths.
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Card 2

Front

Bacteria are very small what?

Back

Living cells

Card 3

Front

Bacteria reproduce rapidly inside your body. They make you feel ill by:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do viruses copy themselves?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do viruses release themselves from cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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