• Created by: salmae
  • Created on: 30-01-20 08:44
What organelles are in an animal cell?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosomes and mitochondria
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What is in a plant cell?
Cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole as well as all the parts of an animal cell.
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What organisms are prokaryotes?
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What are prokaryotes?
Cells that don’t have a nucleus, the DNA is loose, do have a cell wall and are much smaller than eukaryotes.
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What are eukaryotic cells?
They have a nucleus containing DNA, e.g. plant and animal cells
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What is the job of the cell membrane?
controls what enters and leaves the cell.
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What is the job of the cytoplasm?
is where most of the chemical reactions take place.
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What is the job of the nucleus?
contains the DNA and genes.
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What is the job of the ribosomes?
make proteins.
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What is the job of the mitochondria?
where respiration takes place, releasing energy.
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What is the job of the cell wall?
made from cellulose and provides support.
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What is the job of the chloroplasts?
Contain chlorophyll and do photosynthesis.
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What is the job of the vacuole?
Contains sap.
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What is the magnification for a light microscope?
Light microscopes can magnify up to x2,000
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What is the magnification for an electron microscope?
Electron microscopes can magnify up to x2,000,000
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What is diffusion?
The spreading out of particles from high to low concentration.
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What osmosis?
the movement of water from high water concentration to low water concentration, across a partially permeable membrane.
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What is active transport?
moving substances from low to high concentration, using energy to do so.
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What is mitosis?
How cells divide for growth and repair.
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What are the cells like that are made by mitosis?
Provides 2 daughter cells identical to their parent cell.
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What are stem cells?
Un-differentiated, they can differentiate to become any type of specialised cell.
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Where are stem cells found?
Stem cells come from embryos and bone marrow.
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Where in plants are stem cells found?
Stem cells in plants come from meristem tissue – plants have lots of this.
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Define a cell.
The basic building blocks of life.
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Define a tissue.
A group of cells with a similar structure and function.
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Define an organ.
Are groups of tissues performing specific functions.
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Define an organ system.
Organs which work together to perform a specific function.
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What is digestion?
When large molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
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What enzymes do the salivary glands produce?
They produce amylase
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What does the stomach do?
The stomach has muscular tissue that churns food.
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What substance does the liver produce and where is it stored?
Bile and stored in gall bladder.
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Name two functions of Bile.
neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
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What enzymes does the pancreas produce?
protease, carbohydrase and lipase
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What is the function of the small intestine?
produces protease, carbohydrase and lipase enzymes, and absorbs nutrients
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What is the function of the large intestine?
Absorbs water
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What are the three main enzymes in the digestive system?
Carbohydrases, proteases and lipases
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What is Amylase?
A carbohydrase that breaks starch down into simple sugars
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What do proteases do?
Break proteins down into amino acids
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What do lipases do?
Break lipids (fats) down into fatty acids and glycerol
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What are enzymes and what are they made of?
Enzymes are biological catalysts made from protein
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What is the active site of an enzyme?
An active site is the part of the enzyme that binds the substrate(for example, a food molecule).
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Describe the lock and key model.
The shape of the active site exactly fits the shape of the substrate, like a lock and key
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Which two factors affect enzyme activity?
pH and temperatur
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What does denature mean?
When an enzyme’s active site loses its shape. This stops it from working
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How many compartments does the heart have and what are they called?
The heart has 4 compartments. These are the right ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium and left atrium.
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What is deoxygenated blood?
Deoxygenated blood is blood with more carbon dioxide than oxygen.
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Describe the function of the pulmonary artery
Carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs.
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Describe the function of the pulmonary vein.
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
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Describe the role of the vena cava
Carries deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body to the heart
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Describe the role of the aorta.
Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
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Describe the role of a pacemaker
Controls the heart rate, keeping it regular
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Describe the role of the valves
Prevent backflow of blood.
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Describe the role of the arteries.
Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They have thick walls to withstand high pressure.
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Describe the role of the veins.
Veins take blood back to the heart. They have thinner walls and valves to stop backflow of blood
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Describe the role of the capillaries.
) Capillaries are small vessels that are foundaround cells and are only one cell thick
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) What is the trachea?
The trachea (also called the windpipe) is where air first enters the lungs
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What two structures does the trachea split into and what does it do?
splits into two branches called bronchi, which carry air into the lungs.
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Describe what are alveoli and how do they increase the rate of diffusion.
Alveoli are where oxygen diffuses from the lungs into the blood, and carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases
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Name the four types of microorganism.
Bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists are examples of microorganisms.
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How can infections in plants and animals be spread?
nfections in plants and animals can be spread by direct contact, by water or by air.
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How do bacteria make us feel ill
produce poisons (toxins) that damage tissue and make us feel ill.
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How do viruses cause cell damage?
Viruses live and reproduce inside cells causing cell damage.
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Give three examples of viral diseases.
Measles, AIDs and the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are examples of viral diseases.
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How are measles spread?
Measles is spread by inhalation of droplets from sneezes and coughs
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How does HIV cause harm?
HIV or AIDS damages the immune system so that it can’t fight other infections or cancer
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How is HIV spread?
Sexual contact, contaminated needles, exchange of contaminated blood
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What common symptoms are caused by bacteria and the toxins that they secrete?
Gonorrhoea, fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea
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How are bacterial diseases usually treated?
Bacterial diseases are usually easily treated with antibiotics such as penicillin.
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What is rose black spot?
Rose black spot is a fungal disease which cause leaves to turn yellow and eventually drop off
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How does rose black spot affect plant growth?
Rose black spot affects photosynthesis in plants thereby reducing plant growth.
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How is rose black spot spread?
Rose black spot is spread by water and wind
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How is rose black spot treated?
Rose black spot can be treated by using fungicides or by destroying the affected leaves
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Give an example of a protist
An example of a protist is the pathogen that causes malaria.
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What is the name of the life-cycle that the mosquito is apart of?
The mosquito is part of the malaria parasite life cycle
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What medicine is used to fight malaria?
Anti-malaria medicines are used to fight off the malaria parasite
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How can the spread of malaria by mosquitoes be controlled?
The spread of malaria by mosquitoes can be controlled by the use of mosquito nets to avoid being bitten
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What methods are employed to prevent the mosquitoes from breeding?
Oil and chemicals are sometimes sprayed on to the surface of stagnant waters to prevent the mosquitoes from breeding.
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Name the non-specific defence systems of the body?
Non-specific defence systems of the human body against pathogens include the skin, nose, trachea, bronchi and stomach
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How do white blood cells help to defend against pathogens?
White blood cells help to defend against pathogens by: phagocytosis, antibody production and antitoxin production.
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What do vaccinations do?
Vaccination helps prevent illness in an individual.
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How can the spread of pathogens be reduced?
The spread of pathogens can be reduced by immunising a large proportion of the population
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How does vaccination work?
Vaccination involves introducing a small quantity of dead or inactive pathogens into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies
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What do the white blood cells do when a pathogen re-enters the body?
When a pathogen re-enters the body the white blood cells respond quickly to produce the correct antibodies thus preventing an infection.
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What are analgesics and what do they do?
Painkillers also known as analgesics (e.g. paracetamol and aspirin) are used to relieve pain
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What is Penicillin and what do medicines like it do?
Antibiotics such as penicillin are medicines used to cure bacterial infections by killing the infective bacteria inside the body.
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How are specific bacterial infections treated?
Specific bacteria are treated with specific antibiotics
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Where were traditional drugs extracted from?
Traditionally drugs were extracted from plants and micro-organisms.
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Where does heart drug digitalis originate from?
The heart drug digitalis originates from foxgloves
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Where does aspirin originate from?
The painkiller aspirin originates from the bark of the Willow tree
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Who discovered Penicillin?
Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming from the Penicillium mould.
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What is the starting material of most drugs?
Nowadays most new drugs are synthesised by chemists in the pharmaceutical industry, however the starting material could be a plant.
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What do we need to do before we can check whether medicines are safe and effective?
New medicines have to be tested and trialled before being used to check that they are safe and effective.
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What are drugs extensively tested for?
New drugs are extensively tested for toxicity, efficacy and dose
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What stages are there in testing new drugs?
Lab tests on tissues lab tests on animals small trial on healthy volunteers large trials on patient
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What is a placebo?
A placebo is a fake pill that does not contain the active medicine and they are given to patients in some double blind trials.
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What is a double blind trial?
A trial where neither the patient nor doctor know whether they are getting the new drug or a placebo
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is in a plant cell?


Cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole as well as all the parts of an animal cell.

Card 3


What organisms are prokaryotes?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are prokaryotes?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are eukaryotic cells?


Preview of the front of card 5
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