BIOLOGY

WHAT IS HOMEOSTASIS?
THE REGULATION OF INTERNAL CONDITIONS OF A CELL OR ORGANISM TO MAINTAIN OPTIMUM CONDITIONS FOR FUNCTION IN RESPONSETO INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHANGES
1 of 47
WHY IS HOMEOSTASIS IMPORTANT?
TO MAINTAIN OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR ENZYME ACTION AND ALL CELL FUNCTIONS
2 of 47
WHAT DOES HOMEOSTASIS INCLUDE IN THE HUMAN BODY?
BLOOD GLUCOSE CONC.- WATER LEVELS AND BODY TEMP.
3 of 47
HOW DOES THE HUMAN BODY ACHIEVE HOMEOSTASIS?
THROUGH AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS E.G. NERVOUS SYSTEM OR CHEMICAL RESPONSES
4 of 47
DESCRIBE A CONTROL SYSTEM
RECEPTORS: CELLS THAT DETECT STIMULI; COORDINATION CENTRES: AREAS THAT RECIEVE AND PROCESS FROM RECEPTORS; EFFECTORS: MUSCLES OR GLANDS THAT RESPOND TO STIMULI
5 of 47
HOW DOES THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM WORK?
USES ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TO ENABLE YOU TO ACT QUICKLY TO CHANGES IN YOUR SURROUNDINGS AND COORDINATE YOUR BEHAVIOUR
6 of 47
REFLEX ACTIONS ARE...
RAPID AND AUTOMATIC SO THEY ARE NOT UNDER CONCIOUS CONTROL OF THE BRAIN
7 of 47
WHY ARE REFLEXES IMPORTANT?
THEY PROTECT US FROM HARM AND CONTROL EVERYDAY BODILY FUNCTIONS
8 of 47
WHAT IS A SYNAPSE?
THE GAP BETWEEN 2 NEURONE CELLS
9 of 47
HOW DO ELECTRICAL IMPULSES CROSS THE SYNAPSE?
WHEN IT ARRIVES IT TRIGGERS THE RELEASE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS WHICH DIFFUSE ACROSS. THESE BIND TO RECEPTOR SITES ON THE NEXT NEURONE WHICH GENERATES A NEW ELECTRICAL IMPULSE.
10 of 47
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF A SENSORY NEURONE..
A RECEPTOR IN YOUR SKIN BECOMES STIMULATED, AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE PASSES ALONG A SENSORY NEURONE TO THE CNS/ RELAY NEURONE SYNAPSE
11 of 47
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF A RELAY NEURONE
CARRIES IMPULSE FROM SENSORY NEURONE TO MOTOR NEURONE- ACTS AS COORDINATOR IN REFLEX ARC, IN SPINAL CORD/ UNCONCIOUS AREAS OF THE BRAIN.
12 of 47
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF A MOTOR NEURONE
CARRIES IMPULSES FROMRELAY NEURONE TO EFFECTOR WHICH BRINGS RESPONSE
13 of 47
DEFINE THE BRAIN
AN ORGAN MADE OF BILLIONS OF INTERCONNECTED NEURONES TTHAT CONTROL COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR. HAS DIFFERENT REGIONS FOR DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS
14 of 47
NAME 3 PARTS OF THE BRAIN
CEREBRAL CORTEX, CEREBELLUM, MEDULLA
15 of 47
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX?
CONTROLS CONCIOUSNESS LIKE MEMORY; LANGUAGE AND INTELLIGENCE
16 of 47
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBELLUM?
CONTROLS MUSCLE ACTIVITY AND BALANCE
17 of 47
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE MEDULLA?
CONTROLS UNCONSCIOUS ACTIVITIES LIKE BREATHING
18 of 47
HOW DO NEUROSCIENTISTS MAP THE REGIONS OF THE BRAIN?
STUDYING PATIENTS WITH BRAIN DAMAGE, ELECTRICALLY STIMULATING CONCIOUS VOLUNTEERS AND USING MRI SCANS
19 of 47
WHY IS IT DIFFICULT TO TREAT BRAIN DISORDERS?
BECAUSE PROCESSES INVOLVE MANY DIFFERENT NEURONES AND CHEMICALS RELEASED IN SYNAPSES. THESE ARE EASILY DAMAGED, DRUGS DON'T ALWAYS REACH THE BRAIN AND IT IS DIFFICULT NOT TO DAMAGE MORE DUE TO THE COMPLEX, DELICATE BRAIN
20 of 47
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HUMAN BODY TEMP?
37 C
21 of 47
WHY MUST THE BODY TEMP. REMAIN AT NORMAL?
IT IS THE OPTIMUM TEMP. FOR ENZYME ACTION AND ALL CELL PROCESSES.
22 of 47
HOW IS BODY TEMP. CONTROLLED?
THROUGH THE THERMOREGULATORY CENTRE IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS OF THE BRAIN. THIS CONTAINS RECEPTORS THAT ARE SENSITIVE TO TEMP CHANGES IN BLOOD FLOWING THROUGH BRAIN
23 of 47
HOW DOES THE SKIN DETECT TEMP. CHANGE?
THERE ARE TEMP. RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN WHICH SEND NERVE IMPULSES TO THE THERMOREGULATORY CENTRE
24 of 47
IF THE CORE BODY TEMP BECOMES TOO HIGH:
BLOOD VESSELS SUPPLYING CAPILLARIES DILATE MEANING MORE BLOOD FLOWS CLOSER TO THE SKIN; SWEAT IS PRODUCED FROM SWEAT GLANDS, WATER EVAPORATES OFF SKIN MORE ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED TO SURROUNDINGS
25 of 47
IF THE CORE BODY TEMP. BECOMES TOO LOW:
BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT TO REDUCE BLOOD FLOW DECREASES ENERGY TRANSFER; SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT QUICKLY RESPIRING AND RELEASING ENERGY; HAIRS STAND ON END TRAP LAYER OF AIR; SWEATING STOPS, LESS ENERGY TRANSFERRED TO ENVIRONMENT
26 of 47
WHAT IS THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM?
COMPOSED OF GLANDS THAT SECRETE HORMONES INTO BLOODSTREAM.
27 of 47
HOW DO HORMONES TRAVEL AROUND THE BODY?
THE BLOOD CARRIES THE HORMONE TO A TARGET ORGAN WHERE IT PRODUCES AN EFFECT
28 of 47
WHAT DOES THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM DO?
CONTROLS AND COORDINATES CONDITIONS AND PROCESSES IN THE BODY
29 of 47
COMPARE HORMONES TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
HORMONES ARE GENERALLY SLOWER THAN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BUT LONGER LASTING
30 of 47
DESCRIBE THE PITUITARY GLAND
KNOWN AS THE MASTER GLAND AS IT SECRETES SEVERAL HORMONES INTO THE BLOOD IN RESPONSE TO BODY CONDITIONS. SOME ACT ON OTHER GLANDS AND STIMULATE THEM TO RELEASE HORMONES TO BRING ABOUT EFFECTS; PRODUCES ADH TO CONTROL LEVELS OF WATER IN THE BLOOD/BODY
31 of 47
NAME THE 6 GLANDS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
PITUITARY GLAND, THYROID GLAND, ADRENAL GLANDS, PANCREAS, OVARIES , TESTES
32 of 47
THYROID GLAND:
RECEIVES TSH FROM PITUITARY GLAND, TO RELEASE THYROXINE TO CONTROL METABOLIC RATE
33 of 47
OVARIES:
RECEIVE FSHAND LH FROM P.G. TO RELEASE OESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE WHICH CONTROL DEVELOPMENT O SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE
34 of 47
ADRENAL GLANDS:
PRODUUCES ADRENALINE WHICH CONTROLS FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE
35 of 47
PANCREAS:
PRODUCES INSULIN AND GLUCOGEN TO CONTROL BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS
36 of 47
TESTES:
PRODUCE TESTOSTERONE WHICH CONTROLS DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND INVOLVED IN PRODUCTION OF SPERM
37 of 47
WHAT IS A GENE?
A SMALL SECTION OF DNA ON A CHROMOSOME. EACH GENE CODESFO A PARTICULAR SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS. A SEQUENCE OF 3 BASES COD FOR ONE SPECIFIC AMINO ACID
38 of 47
WHERE IS GENETIC MATERIAL FOUND?
THE NUCLEUS OF A CELL
39 of 47
WHAT IS DNA?
A POLYMER MADE OF 2 STRANDS OF FOUR REPEATING NUCLEOTIDES FORMING A DOUBLE HELIX.
40 of 47
WHAT ARE NUCLEOTIDES MADE OF?
A PHOSPHATE A SUGAR AND A BASE. THE SUGAR AND PHOSPHATE MAKE THE BACKBONE. THE STRANDS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY LINKS BETWEEN BASES
41 of 47
WHICH BASES ARE COMPLEMENTARY?
A+T--- C+G
42 of 47
WHAT CONTROLSTHE ORDER IN WHICH AMINO ACIDS ARE ASSEMBLED TO PRODUCE A PARTICULAR PROTEIN?
THE ORDER OF BASES
43 of 47
WHAT HAS MAPPING THE ENTIRE HUMAN GENOME HELPED?
UNDERSTANDING INHERITED DISORDERS; CAN PREDICT RISK OF DEVELOPING DISEASES; MAPPING HUMAN HISTORY
44 of 47
WHAT IS AN ALLELE?
VARIANT OF A GENE
45 of 47
WHAT IS THE GENOTYPE?
THE ALLELES PRESENT IN AN ORGANISM, INHERITED FROM THEIR PARENTS
46 of 47
WHAT IS THE PHENOTYPE?
HOW THE ALLELES ARE EXPRESSED
47 of 47

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

WHY IS HOMEOSTASIS IMPORTANT?

Back

TO MAINTAIN OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR ENZYME ACTION AND ALL CELL FUNCTIONS

Card 3

Front

WHAT DOES HOMEOSTASIS INCLUDE IN THE HUMAN BODY?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

HOW DOES THE HUMAN BODY ACHIEVE HOMEOSTASIS?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

DESCRIBE A CONTROL SYSTEM

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Homeostasis resources »