Biology- Organic molecules and food tests

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 04-07-16 03:46
What do organisms need organic molecules for?
For energy and raw materials
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What are the 4 main groups of organic chemicals used by living things?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
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What is metabolism?
The sum of all chemical reactions in cells
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By what process are larger molecules broken down into smaller ones with the use of water?
Hydrolysis
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By what process are large molecules built up from smaller ones by the removal of water?
Condensation
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What are carbohydrates made out of?
Simple repeating sugars called saccharides
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What are the simplest carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides
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Gives an example of a monosaccharide
Glucose
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What do monosaccharides do?
They are the main source of energy
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Give an example of a disaccharide
Sucrose
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What do monosaccharides make up?
Polysaccharides
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Is glucose soluble?
Yes
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What is made out of glucose?
Starch and glycogen
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Why are starch and glycogen good stores of energy?
They are insoluble
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What important structure can polysaccharides form?
Cellulose cell wall
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What are lipids made out of?
3 molecules of fatty acids with 1 molecule of glycerol
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What are the uses of lipids?
Insulation, storing, vitamin absorption, protection
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If fats and oils are insoluble in water, what are they good for?
Excellent stores of energy and barriers between cells and their environment
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What are proteins made up of?
Amino acids
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How many amino acids are there?
20, 9 of them are essential
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What determines the shape of a protein molecule?
The sequence of amino acids
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What depends on the shape of the protein?
Its function
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Amino acids=> ... => ... => Protein
Peptide, polypeptide
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What chemical elements are present in amino acids?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sometimes sulphur
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Why are amino acids easily transported?
They are soluble
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What are the uses of proteins?
Growth, repair, tissue development
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What is the structure of nucleic acids in DNA?
Two strands coiled together to form a double helix
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How are the chemicals in nucleic acids called?
Bases
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How are the bases cross-linked?
AT, CG
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What does the DNA do?
Passes on the genetic information
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Why is water so important?
It is a solvent in organisms in digestion, excretion and transport
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Give two specific use of a protein
Antibodies, enzymes
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What is the test for reducing sugars? What is the colour change?
Benedict's test, from blue to brick-red
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What is the test for starch? What is the colour change?
Iodine test, from orange to black, dark blue
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What is the test for proteins? What is the colour change?
Biuret test, from blue to mauve
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What is the test for lipids? What is the observable change?
Emulsion/ Ethanol test, a cloudy precipitate forms
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What is the test for Vitamin C? What is the colour change?
DCPIP test, from blue to colourless
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Why are food tests useful?
They give a good visual result
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 4 main groups of organic chemicals used by living things?

Back

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids

Card 3

Front

What is metabolism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

By what process are larger molecules broken down into smaller ones with the use of water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

By what process are large molecules built up from smaller ones by the removal of water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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