Biology

HideShow resource information
What characteristics do all living organisms share?
They require nutrition, they respire, they excrete their waste, they respond to surroundings, they move, they control their internal conditions, they reproduce, they grow and develop. (MRS GRENC)
1 of 110
What are the 6 types of organism?
Animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses and protoctists.
2 of 110
What are the characteristics of an animal?
They are vertabrates or invertabrates. No cell walls (movement) No chloroplasts (food) Store energy as glycogen. Multicellular. Have nervous coordination.
3 of 110
What are the characteristics of plants?
Multicellular. Cells contain chloroplasts. Carry out photosynthesis. Have cellulose cell walls. Store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose.
4 of 110
What are the characteristics of fungi? (mould yeast, mushroom)
Most are unicellular. Body organised into mycelium made from structures called hyphae. Chitin cell walls. Store carbohydrate as glycogen.
5 of 110
What are the characteristics of bacteria?
Microscopic single-celled organisms. Dont have a nucleus but have a chromosome of DNA. Most feed off living dead organisms.
6 of 110
What are the characteristics of viruses?
Smaller than bacteria. Parasitic and can only reproduce inside living cells. They infect every living organism.
7 of 110
What are the characteristics of protoctists?
Microscopic single-celled organisms. Some resemble animal cells (protozoa) Some resemble plant cells (algae)
8 of 110
Which of these organisms can be described as a pathogen?
Fungi, bacteria, viruses and protoctists.
9 of 110
What are the 5 levels of organisation within organisms?
Organelles, cells, tissues, organs then systems.
10 of 110
Whats the function of the nucleus?
It regulates cell activity and contains DNA information.
11 of 110
Whats the function of the cytoplasm?
Jelly-like substance that fills the cell.
12 of 110
Whats the function of the cell membrane?
This controls what enters and exits the cell.
13 of 110
Whats the function of the cell wall?
This protects the body of the cell from foreign objects and keeps its rigidity.
14 of 110
Whats the function of the chloroplast?
Produces the food and energy for the cell.
15 of 110
Whats the function of the vacuole?
The vacuole it is filled with disolved sugars, mineral ions and solutes called cell sap. It acts as the energy store and helps the organism live.
16 of 110
What is the structure of an animal cell like?
They dont have a cell wall. Irregular shape. doesnt have a permanent vacuole.
17 of 110
What is the structure of a plant cell?
It has a cell wall. Rigid. Rectangular shape. Permanent vacuole.
18 of 110
What are the chemical elements present in Carbohydrates?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
19 of 110
What are the chemical elements present in proteins?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen.
20 of 110
What are the chemical elements present in lipids?
A glycerol and three fatty acids.
21 of 110
What is the structure of a carbohydrate?
It is a polymer or starch (plants) or glycogen (animals) It has a monomer of glucose.
22 of 110
What is the structure of a protein?
It is a polymer made up of monomers of amino acids.
23 of 110
What is the structure of a lipid?
Contain one glycerol and three fatty acids.
24 of 110
What is the food test for glucose?
Add Benedicts solution and somemystery solution then add an equal amount of Benedicts reagent. Heat for 5 minutes at 95 degrees.
25 of 110
What colour will the liquid go if glucose is present?
Cloudy orange.
26 of 110
What is the food test for starch?
Add iodine solution (brown) and mystery solution.
27 of 110
What colour will the liquid go if starch is present?
Blue.
28 of 110
What is the role of enzymes in metabolic reactions?
They act as biological catalysts.
29 of 110
What is the optimum temperature for enzymes?
Approximately 37 degrees.
30 of 110
What temperature do enzymes denature?
55 degrees.
31 of 110
What does denatured mean?
The active site has changed shape and can no longer react with a substrate.
32 of 110
What happens in colder temperatures to enzymes?
They take a longer time to react.
33 of 110
Which pH to enzymes work best at? (optimum pH)
pH 7
34 of 110
What happens to the enzyme if the surrounding pH is either side of the optimum?
The structure of the enzyme is affected and the active site changes shape.
35 of 110
Whats the definition of diffusion?
The movement of particles down a concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
36 of 110
Whats the definition of osmosis?
The movement of particles through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
37 of 110
Whats the definition of active transport?
The movement of particles against the concentration powered by energy from respiration.
38 of 110
How are plant cells supported?
By turgid cells (rigid cell walls)
39 of 110
How can size affect the movement of substances into and out of cells?
It is easy for substances to pass into single-celled organisms but larger organisms have had to develop systems to pass substances through. In single celled organisms substances can diffuse through walls.
40 of 110
During photosynthesis, what is light energy converted in to?
Chemical energy.
41 of 110
What is the word and chemical equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + oxygen CO2 + H2O --> C6H12O6 + O2
42 of 110
What affects the rate of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity, temperature.
43 of 110
What should a balanced diet involve?
Appropriate proportions of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, minerals, water and dietry fibre.
44 of 110
Give an example and describe the use of carbohydrates.
Bread. Energy and respiration.
45 of 110
Give an example and describe the use of proteins.
Meat. Growth and repair.
46 of 110
Give an example and describe the use of lipids.
Butter. Insulation and energy store.
47 of 110
What does vitamin A do?
eyesight
48 of 110
What does vitamin C do?
A variety of things.
49 of 110
What does vitamin D do?
Bones, teeth, skin (protects from UV light.)
50 of 110
What do minerals do?
Iron- red blood cells. Calcium- Bones.
51 of 110
What factors might make energy requirements vary?
Activity levels, age and pregnancy.
52 of 110
In the mouth what do the teeth and tongue and saliva do?
Teeth and tongue start mechanical digestion while saliva is added to moisten food and start chemical digestion.
53 of 110
What does saliva contain?
Amylase which breaks starch to maltose.
54 of 110
What happens in the oesophagus?
Bolus is passed down by peristalsis to stomach.
55 of 110
What is the pH of the stomach?
pH 2- this kills bacteria.
56 of 110
What does the stomach do mechanically and chemically?
Churns food and add pepsin (breaking proteins into peptides)
57 of 110
What does the pancreas do in relation to the small intestine?
Adds more amylase (breaks carbs.) Trypsin (Breaks protease) and Lipases (breaks lipids)
58 of 110
Where is bile created and stored?
Created in the kidney and stored in the gall bladder.
59 of 110
What does bile do?
Emulsifies lipids to assist lipases. Also neutralises stomach acids.
60 of 110
What else happens in the small intestine?
Final peptidases and carbohydrases break peptides into amino acids and maltose into glucose.
61 of 110
What is assimilation?
To transform food into living tissue.
62 of 110
What is egestion?
The expultion of undigested food.
63 of 110
What is peristalsis? Why does it occur?
The circular muscles contract behind the food while longitudinal muscles also contract pushing food along so that it may be absorbed or excreted.
64 of 110
What do the villi do?
Absorb food molecules into the blood capillaries for energy and also water. They also increase the surface area of the small intestine.
65 of 110
What does respiration do?
Releases energy in living organisms.
66 of 110
What is aerobic respiration?
The fuel needed or all life processes.
67 of 110
What is the word and chemical equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water. C6H12O6 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O
68 of 110
What is anaerobic respiration?
Is the conversion of glucose to lactic acid to make up for the lack of oxygen in muscles during intense exercise.
69 of 110
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --> lactic acid.
70 of 110
What happens to the intercostal muscles and diaphragm when breathing?
The intercostal muscles move up and out while the diaphragm moves down. This increase the volume and pressure in the thorax so oxygen is sucked in.
71 of 110
How are alveoli adapted for gas exchange?
They have very thin walls to make diffusion easier. They are also less than 1/1000th of a mm from a blood capillary making a short diffusion pathway.
72 of 110
What is the role of the phloem?
To transport the products of photosynthesis (sucrose and amino acids) away from the mesophyll cells to all other parts of a plant. The proteins help young leaves etc. to grow.
73 of 110
How is water absorbed into a root hair cell?
There is a thin cell wall for a shorter diffusion pathway and this also increases the surface area.
74 of 110
What is transpiration?
The evaporation of water from the surface of a plant.
75 of 110
What makes up blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
76 of 110
What does plasma do?
Transports CO2, digested food, urea, hormones and heat energy around and to the necessary places in the body.
77 of 110
How are red blood cells suitable for the transportation of oxygen around the body?
They dont have a nucleus to increase surface area. They are disk shape to increase surface area. Haemoglobin combines with O2 to create oxihaemoglobin in high concentrations of oxygen.
78 of 110
What does a phagocyte do in response to a disease?
They ingest bacteria by changing their shape and producing the extension of their cytoplasm called pseudopia. These then surround the bacteria and encloses it in its vacuole.
79 of 110
What does a lymphocyte do in response to a disease?
It produces a chemical called antibodies which are soluble protiens that destroy pathogens by sticking bacteria together (for phagocytes) By acting like a label on the pathogen or by making the pathogen burst open.
80 of 110
What are memory cells and where are they stored?
In the lymph nodes. Once recovered from a disease your immune system stores memory cells that make you resist the same microbal infection in the future..
81 of 110
How do vaccinations work?
A fluid that contains a dead microbe or antigens from it. Once injected cause memory cells to be made and stored.
82 of 110
How do platelets cause clotting?
The reaction that cause fibrinogen (soluble) to turn into fibrin (insoluble) by the release of thrombin by platelets turns liquid blood into a solid.
83 of 110
What happens to the heart rate during exercise and in the prescence of adrenaline?
The heart rate increases in order to supply muscles with more oxygen so that they can unction to their best ability.
84 of 110
What are three organs of excretion?
Lungs, Kidney and skin.
85 of 110
What are the two roles of the kidney?
It carries out excretion and osmoregulation.
86 of 110
What is the role of the nephron?
It filters the blood and in doing so regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances.
87 of 110
How do nephrons eliminate waste from the body?
They form urine because high pressure in the glomerulus pushes water in the Bowmans capsule where filtering then takes place and waste products are excreted.
88 of 110
What does the proximal tubule do?
Reabsorbs water and glucose to maintain electolyte levels.
89 of 110
What does the tissue surrounding the loop of Henle do?
Concentrates salts thatll be exctreted into the urine.
90 of 110
What do these concentrated salts do?
Create a concentration gradient in the urine in the medulla.
91 of 110
What occurs at the Bowmans capsule?
Ultrafiltration.
92 of 110
What happens to the blood before and after ultrafiltration?
The blood in the renal artery is under high pressure but after ultrafiltration through a partially permeable membrane the volume decreases. Thin walls are needed after the Bowmans capsule to maintain the pressure.
93 of 110
What does ADH do in regulating the water content of blood?
It is in the pituitary gland and manages the amount of water in the body by acting in the kidneys.
94 of 110
What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of a constant internal environment.
95 of 110
Which two things are examples of homeostasis?
Body water content and body temperature.
96 of 110
What three things does a coordinated response require?
A stimulus, a receptor and an effector.
97 of 110
What physiological changes occur when you become hot?
Sweating cools you down when the sweat evaporates from the skin. Hair erector muscles cause the hair to lie flat so that air cant be trapped and act as an insulator. The arterioles dilate to increase blood flow to the skins surface (vasodilation)
98 of 110
What physiological changes occur when you become cold?
Hair erector muscles contract to trap air which acts as an insulator. Arterioles constrict so less heat is lost at the skins surface (vasoconstriction) The bodies metabolism speeds up generating more heat.
99 of 110
Give two differences between a wind pollinated plant and an insect pollinated plant?
In a wind pollinated plant the stigma would hang low and be longer so pollen can be blown. INsect pollinated plants may have tiny hooks on them or may be more colourful.
100 of 110
What does the growth of the pollen tube an fertilisation lead to?
The formation of a seed and fruit.
101 of 110
What are the conditions needed for seed germination?
Seeds need a combination of oxygen, moisture, temperature, & light. As the seed takes up water, it activates enzymes. The seed absorbs the water & expands.Oxygen increases respiration, and correct temperature is needed to activate growth enzymes.
102 of 110
What is the role of the placenta?
Moves oxygen into the babies blood stream and carries carbon dioxide away. Its also provides the fetus with nutrients and removes waste products created by the baby.
103 of 110
What is the developing embryo protected by?
Amniotic fluid.
104 of 110
Define population.
All organisms of a particular species in an ecosystem.
105 of 110
Define community.
Population of all species in an ecosystem.
106 of 110
Define habitat.
A place where specific organisms live.
107 of 110
Define ecosystem.
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
108 of 110
Name the first four trophic levels in a food chain.
primary, secondary, tertiary then quaternary.
109 of 110
Why can only 10% is transferred between 2 trophic levels?
Because of respiration, excretion and living.
110 of 110

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 6 types of organism?

Back

Animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses and protoctists.

Card 3

Front

What are the characteristics of an animal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the characteristics of plants?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the characteristics of fungi? (mould yeast, mushroom)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

T.A

Report

this is really good! btw definition for osmosis is the net movement of water molecules accross a partially permeable membrane from a region of high WATER concentration to a region of lower WATER concentration. :)

T.A

Report

sorry but just found another mistake........ bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and used in the small intestine. 

T.A

Report

sorry but just found another mistake........ bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and used in the small intestine. 

T.A

Report

sorry but just found another mistake........ bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and used in the small intestine. 

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »