BIO2008: Lecture 1

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  • Created by: LMoney
  • Created on: 10-05-14 18:17
What did Darwin discover? (1809-1882)
Described theory of natural selection, acting on phenotypic differences between individuals, Used artificial selection experiments as evidence
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who was Russel Wallace (1923)
Cofounder of principle of natural selection, recognised enormous amount of variation within populations, controversial
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when were allozyme and amino acid sequences used in population genetics?
Late 1960's
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when was DNA sequence data used?
Late 1980's
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when can evolution happen?
Evolution can only happen when there is genetic variation (heritable) at the population level
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what level does evolution occur at?
Evolution occurs at the population level – not the species level!
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where is evolution and population genetics useful in medicine?
understanding occurrence of inherited and multifactorial diseases 1) spread of epidemics 2) Genetic counselling 3) Mapping disease genes
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how is it used in phylogenetic variation?
Genetic underpinning for all evolutionary biology (speciation)
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how is it used in conservation?
1) as a resource to safe or reintroduce endangered species 2) Mating programs in zoos and wildlife refuges 3) Sampling germplasm
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what is heritable variation controlled by?
DNA
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what does 'no inheritance of acquired characteristics' mean?
The environment selects among different DNAs but cannot selectively change DNA
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What is a population? 2 definitions
1) Randomly mating group of individuals of the same species 2) Collection (sample) from a certain location
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what sort of characters can be researched in population genetics?
1) Morphology 2) Behaviour 3) Chromosomes: inversions 4) Protein variation – since 1960s 5) DNA variation – since late 1980s 6) Regulatory genes – expression – starting to be possible
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which organisms are researched in population genetics? (model organisms)
1) Drosophila 2) Yeast 3) Red flour beetle 4) Arabidopsis 5) Crops 6) Zebrafish
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what is continuous variation?
mostly influenced by alleles of many genes (polygenic)
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what kind of distribution do continuous variation characters have?
normal distribution
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what is a continuous variation often influenced by?
environmental factors- obscures genetic segregation
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describe what happens with segregation in continuous variation?
Segregation of one gene in pedigree obscured by segregation in other genes
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in discrete mendelian variation, describe the inheritance?
follow inheritance of simples traits e.g. flower colour in Anthirrhinum
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what is a gene?
physical entity transmitted from parent to offspring in reproduction that influences hereditary traits (codes for protein)
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what is a locus (plural loci)?
Locus (plural loci) is the position of a gene or marker on a chromosome
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in a diploid, the genotype is a combination of how many alleles?
2
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Card 2

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who was Russel Wallace (1923)

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Cofounder of principle of natural selection, recognised enormous amount of variation within populations, controversial

Card 3

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when were allozyme and amino acid sequences used in population genetics?

Back

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Card 4

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when was DNA sequence data used?

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Card 5

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when can evolution happen?

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