PSYC1617

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  • Exploring Animal Behaviour
    • Lecture 1 EAB Origins
      • Origins
        • Hunters and prey in cave paintings (c35,000 ya)
        • Farming and domestication (c10,000ya)
      • Philosophy
        • 1. Humans apart from nature- "gap"
        • 2. Humans are a part of nature- "continuity"
      • Natural History
        • Monks/Clerics manuscripts with flora and fauna
        • 17th century it became a recognised subject
        • 19th century observation no framework (Darwin provided this)
      • Charles Darwin
        • Origin of species 1859, Descent of Man 1871, Expression of emotions in man and animals 1872
        • Evolutionary theory provided strong case for continuity
        • Evolution discussed by Aristotle ''scala naturae" and by Lamarck
        • HMS Beagle
        • Natural selection must be heritable, have a stable population, compe***ion, have more offspring than survive and inherit traits
        • Neo-Darwinism added theory of genetic (Mendel)
      • 21st Century
        • Animal psychology
          • Lab based
          • Tightly controlled
          • White rat
          • Artificial
          • Emphasis on learning via experience
        • Ethology
          • Field based
          • Diverse species
          • Behaviours
          • Observation and description
          • Focus on inherited behaviours
        • Sociobiology
          • hypothesis testing on evolution of social behaviour
          • originates in the mid 1970s and is driven by Darwin
          • Hypothesis tests using field observation and experiments
          • Diverse species
      • Importance of the question
        • Tindenberg's 4 question
          • Causation, development, function and evolution
          • Edward Wilson: proximate vs ultimate
        • John Alcock 1998: Proximate= causation and development (how?) Ultimate= function and evolution (why?)
        • Nature vs Nurture debate
    • Lecture 2 Learning (non-associative)
      • Change in behaviour as a result of experience needed for adaptive behaviour
      • Types of learning
        • Non-associative (Habituation or Sensitisation)
        • Associative learning (Pavlovian and instrumental)
        • Other forms (spatial and perceptual)
        • Aplysia (Sea Slug) crucial for simple learning
      • Habituation
        • Response greater the 1st time and then lessens
        • Shown in gill stimulation
      • Sensitisation
        • Increased response to stimulus
        • Shown in stronger responses when shocks increase in size and duration to the tail
      • Pavlovian conditioning
        • Pavlov's dogs= NS is the metronome, US food, CS metronome leads to salivation
        • Fear conditioning is measure by body freezing, conditioned suppression, fear potentiated startle, heart rate
        • LiCl injection induce vomiting for taste aversion
        • Conditions for learning
          • US must be surprising or blocking will occur (snails)
          • CS must be novel (latent inhibition)
          • Overshadowing shows that it is better for stimuli to be separate (planarium)
          • CS-US Contingency (rats getting shocked)
          • Biological preparedness shows some associations are easier to make ('noisy flavoured water')
    • Lecture 3 Instrumental Learning
      • Prediction and control are needed for successful adaption
      • Action is instrumental in causing an outcome
      • Thorndike's Law of Effect:
        • Association between stimulus and response strengthened by presentation of a reinforcer
        • No encoding
        • Habitual
      • Tolman
        • Animals have an encoding of the outcome and is desired by a value
      • Instrumental vs. Pavlovian
        • Hershberger
          • Chick runs down a runway to get food
          • In instrumental the action of running gives food
          • In Pavlovian the bowl is associated with the food
          • When there are mirrors there is no instrumental relationship between action and outcome as the chicks do not run away
        • Grindley
          • Guinea pigs turning left/right when the buzzer sounds to get food
          • Reversal showed they could still perform so must be pavlovian
        • Free operant lever pressing shows instrumental
        • Appetative event is reinforcement
        • Omission is negative punishment
        • Aversion is punishment
        • Escape avoidance is negative reinforcement
      • Difference between SR and cognitive account
        • Change reward value
        • Adams and Dickinsons
          • 1 press means food
          • 2 presses means no food
          • Animals are sensitive to learning consquences as behaviour changes depending on the consequences
          • Supports instrumental action
        • Training means habitual behaviour (SR)
        • Fewer training succeptable to devaluation so there is a habitual and an encoding pathway
      • Spatial learning
        • Hippocampus
        • When starting point is changed if it is the SR they will turn left, if it is the place it will go to the right location
        • SR and ** both happen depending on the circumstance
        • Claudate Nucleus important for automatic learning
        • Evidence for cognitive map- little evidence
        • Path integreation (dead reckoning) in ants use the quickest route
        • Landmarks shown in with pine cones
        • Intra/Extra maze cues cause blocking so are no different to regular cues so follow basic associative learning rules
    • Lecture 4 Instincts and Learning
      • Instinct is innate so it is inflexible and not easily changed
      • Learning is the reaction to the environment so is flexible and not inherited
      • Cross reared Galahs
        • Galahs and pink cockatoos lay eggs together
        • Pink Cockatoos are larger and more aggressive so drive Galahs away
        • Pink cockatoos hatch and rear the Galahs along with their own
        • Instinct shown in begging and alarm calls
        • Learned behaviour shown in contact calls, slow wing bats and food preference
      • Fixed action patterns
        • Once they've started they must carry on the sequence
        • Activated by sign stimuli and innate releasing mechanisms
        • If goose egg rolls the goose taps it back on line and doesn't respond to the environment
      • Sign stimuli (Tindenberg 1951)
        • Sticklebacks do mating dance to red post van show aggression to rival males (position and colour is key)
        • Chicks give contact call when separated from their mothers, when put in glass tube the mother doesn't retrieve them
        • Chicks tap lower mandible to get food (red is key)
      • Simple Learning
        • Digging wasps make their nests surrounded by pine cones and will go where the pine cones are moved
        • Sooty Tern will return to the place they laid the egg even if the egg has been moved
        • Thynnine wasps attracted to orchid that mimics the female pheromone so are pollinated
      • Innate Releasing Mechanisms
        • Combination of stimuli
        • Young goslings reaction to silhouette shows shape and movement responsible for fear
        • Reed Warblers see young begging as a sign stimuli so will feed cuckoos
        • Bird feeding goldfish with mouths open
        • IRMs in humans
          • FAPs continue once activated
          • Yawning is contagious
          • Response to human babies
          • Babies sucking, grasping and rooting
          • Babies up to 6 months can swim
      • Code braking in Rove Beetles by tapping ants mouth parts to start FAP
    • Lecture 5 Organisation of Behaviour
      • Army ants act as one organism
      • Hunting in snakes uses heat, taste and touch but they may be independent
      • Preying Mantis
        • Simple CNS with excitatory link sending messages to the 1st thoracic ganglion and abdominal ganglion
        • If inhibitory connections are cut, it sends excitatory messages immediately so several actions happen at once
      • Cycles
        • Circadian Cycles (Crickets)
          • have internal mechanism and needs environmental cue
          • When the optic nerve is cut there is complete breakdown of patterns (internal pacemaker)
          • When retinas are cleaved the cheeping time drifts
        • Lunar cycles
          • Kangeroo rats will only hunt in the full moon if the food is scarce
        • Yearly cycles
          • As animals come out of hibernation, respiration and brain activity increases and core starts to warm (process)
          • When blinded after a number of years the hibernation period drifts
        • Reproductive cycles
          • In mice males will kill pups that aren't theirs
          • Lizards have a hemipenis giving prostoglandin release
    • Lecture 6 Habitat Selection
      • Territory size is determined by food availability
      • Prior residence effect is the best predictor of territorial success shown in white and black butterflies
      • Dispersal occurs to avoid inbreeding or mate compe***ion
      • Blue **** like oak foliage and Coal **** like pine, oak leaves fall so blue **** can forage on the ground
      • Aphids form galls to protect young, those nearer the tree on bigger leaves have more sap and are more successful
      • Prior residence effect
        • territory holder will usually win and can preserve life
        • Shown in white and black butterflies
      • Hummingbird territory has calorific benefits
      • Only beneficial if there isn't excess food
      • When Blue *** territory holder is captured a new bird will take over and dynamics change
      • Territorial size changes in accordance to food availability and intruder pressure
      • Northern Harriers have smaller territories when food is plentiful, larger territories have fewer mice but intruder pressure still a factor
      • Dispersal
        • Vervet monkeys don't move around much as those that do are likely to disappear i unfamiliar territory
        • Bolding's ground squirrel have males that disperse and females that stay avoid interbreeding
        • Male Serengeti lions use infanticide but females are the heart of the pride to avoid mate compe***ion
    • Lecture 7 Migration
      • Due to the Earth's tilt causing seasons and is response to environment
      • Migration towards rich food sources and reproductive purposes
      • Uses clocks and compasses
      • Stay strategy
        • Retains occupation of territory but needs energy to defend it and risk of injury
        • Avoid energetic costs of moving
        • Avoid exposure to environmental or predatory risk
        • Food and fat stores may not last
        • Extreme weather may not be survivable and there are less opportunities for reproduction
        • Deer mice breeding shows it changes due to the environment (desert breed in winter)
        • Lactational barrier must be reached as it is the most costly part of pregnancy
      • Hibernation
        • Reduced need for food
        • Global warming issues
      • Migration
        • Arctic Terns move to plentiful plankton
        • Monarch butterflies use 3/4 generations with one super generation and they follow the cyanide mil weed
        • Mostly south to north
        • Green turtles return to natal beach
        • Grey Whales live in cold water to feed but calves don't have blubber so go to warm, coastal areas for protection
      • Navigation
        • Piloting
          • Noting the next land mark you see (using landscape)
          • Shown in dolphins using peaks and troughs
        • Compasses
          • North magnetic feild
          • Evidence for pigeons, eels and sock eye salmon
        • Dead Reckoning
          • Compass (direction) and Clock (duration)
        • Celestial Compass
          • Follow the sun and adjust pathway to time of day
          • Clock and compass needed
          • Marine animals use it (snell's window)
          • Dung beetles use stars
        • Star compasses in birds
          • Move in the direction of a particular star
          • Must adjust compass to la***ude and rotation
        • Information from other sense organs
          • Mechanoreception
          • Chemoreception
          • Thermoreception
          • Electroreception
          • Magnetic forces
          • Gravitational forces
    • Lecture 8 Anti predator defence behaviour
      • Crypsis
        • Not being seen
        • Shown in young grasshoppers, thorn bugs, tree hoppers and salt and pepper moths
      • Mimicry
        • Pretending to be something else
        • Shown in moth caterpillars being snakes, moths with pseudo heads and ground nesting owls with rattle snake noises
        • Rattlesnake sound shows effect on coastal squirrels but not Davis
      • Warning
        • Show that they are dangerous
        • Paper wasps (black and yellow), fire bellied toads (orange and black)
        • Lyacid bug killed less when warning coloured over cryptic
        • Batesian mimicry when they show warning but aren't dangerous
      • Behavioural strategies
        • Broken wing displays in Plovers
        • Vervet monkeys have different warning calls for predators
      • Unprofibility
        • Signal they are not worth attacking shown in stotting deer
      • Vigelence
        • Increase distance from predator
        • Always someone watching the predator
        • Constant vigelence
        • Removal of proximity
        • Defence aggression
        • Physical escape strategies (protean behaviour and death feigning) e.g. wilderbeast zigzags and possums play dead
        • Owl calls shows period after call is the time to take precaution in doormice
    • Lecture 9 Sociobiology (Altruism)
      • Advantages of society
        • Mating/care of young (contact kin availability)
        • Protection against predators
        • Foraging/ cooperative hunting (info and prey size)
        • Manipulation of the environment (burrows and hives)
        • Division of labour (specialisation)
        • Cultural transmission (vicarious learning)
      • Altruism
        • Putting yourself at risk to help another but personal risk implied reduced fitness
        • Evolutionary theory would predict altruism should be selected against in favour of selfishness
      • V.C Wynne Edwards (1962)
        • Animal dispersal and its relation to social behaviour
        • Over exploitation avoided through birth regulation
        • Shown by
          • Capable of producing more offspring
          • Social subordinates not reproducing
          • Breeding is delayed
          • Long intervals between breeding
          • Consuming own offspring
        • Behaviour benefits the group "group selection theory"
        • Uses epideitic displays to get info on population density
        • Problems
          • How the gene survives when representation is reduced
          • Self sacrifice is not evolutionary sustainable
      • Kin Selection theory (Hamilton 1964)
        • Concerns for those with shared genes
        • Inclusive fitness= direct fitness+indirect fitness
        • Ground squirrel alarm calls (females closely related)
        • Altruistic behaviour selected if K>1/r
        • Young birds help rear future siblings and produce just as much as the parents
        • Favouring helping behaviour selected if H>S (HxrH>SxrS)
        • Seychelles warbler (Jon Komodeur)
          • Removing helper leads to breeding success falling
          • Young living with step parents gave less assitance to half siblings and non to unrelated
          • Helping experiences influences future parental success
          • Young that inherit parental territory do better
          • Young will breed if possible and help if not
          • More likely to help if parental territory is quality
      • Eusocial insects (Trivers and Hare)
        • Females forgo reproduction to work for mother
        • Males are haploid (unfertilized egg)
        • Average relatedness 75%
        • 3x amount of food given to females
        • Accounts for 'kamikazee bees'
    • Lecture 10 Sociobiology (mate selection)
      • Reproductive decisions
        • How? When? With whom? Which social system?
        • How? can be costly, exposure to danger, desertion, cuckoldry (benefits must outweigh costs)
        • With whom? associated behaviour patterns vivid, stereotyped and species specific characteristics give genetic control
      • Reproductive isolating mechanisms
        • Premating mechanisms
        • Mating related mechanisms
        • Post mating mechanisms
      • Courtship
        • Transmit unambiguous signal (advertisor)
        • Act on message (Selector)
        • 'Advertisers' selected for salesmanship and 'Selectors' selected for for sales resistance
        • Most males are advertisers as they have less to invest
      • Anisogomy shows females have few, large ova and males have many small sperm
      • Investment differential suggests female birds and mammals have more to invest
      • Functions of courtship
        • classically: attraction, overcoming fear of close contact, maintain bond
        • 4th one is to evaluate potential mates
      • Mate attractiveness
        • Male finches with white head and crest feathers
        • Male widow birds with long tails
        • Peacocks with lots of spots on the lower edge
      • Cuckoldry
        • Refuse to mate with suspected inceminated female
        • Protect the female, use plugs, repellents
      • Darwin Mate Selection
        • Intrasexual is beween males
        • Intersexual is the efficiency to females
      • Parental Investment (Trivers)
        • Increase offspring survival rate at the cost of the parents
        • More female investment and maximum net offspring is lower
        • Females stop reproduction earlier
      • Mating systems
        • Monogamy
        • Polygamy (polygyny/polyandry)
        • Promiscuity
        • Promiscuity has direct and indirect female gain (genes and resources)
        • Subordinate gain is inclusive fitness and deferred fitness
    • Lecture 11 Sociobiology (Aggression)
      • John Archer 1988: compe***ive aggression, protective aggression, parental aggression
      • Fight for limited resources shown in human tribes and sea anemones
      • Forms of compe***ion
        • Scramble compe***ion
        • Contest compe***ion
        • Shown in roaring red deers
      • When to be aggressive
        • Dominance relations
        • Access to mates
        • food, sleeping places, territory, nest sites
        • Rhesus monkeys scramble until humans feed
      • When not to be aggressive
        • Resources are abundant
        • Population density is low
        • Lack of physical maturity, relevant experience or social subordinate
      • Social stability means low aggression
      • Sex differences in aggression
        • Proximate explanation is testosterone
        • Ultimate explanation is females are vital resources
      • Theoretical view (Barash 1982)
        • fighting to an optimum not a maximum
        • After optimum the costs are higher than the gains
        • Support in field studies rarely showing fatalities
        • Proximate explanation is existence of elaborate displays to allow conflict resolution (ritualised attacks, submission and threat displays)
        • Ultimate explanation is that beyond dominance there is little to gain and the animals can get resources without fighting so there are mutually accepted rules of combat
      • Requirements
        • Effective communication
        • Unambiguous signals of compeition with vivid threat displays
        • Unambiguous signals of submission
        • Victory (testosterone) and defeat (cortisol) support physiological changes like hormones
        • Aggression is highly adaptive

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