BIOL120 Part 1

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  • Created by: Paul
  • Created on: 14-01-17 17:40
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  • BIOL120 - Biochemistry & Cell biology
    • Lecture 1 - Biomacromolecules
      • Polypeptides
        • linear - alpha amino acids - peptide bonds
      • Nucleic acid polymers
        • linear -phosphodister links
      • Polysaccharides
        • linear/branched - ****-/heteropolymer - monosaccharides - glycosidic links
      • All formed from condensation reactions
    • Lecture 2 - lipids and membranes
      • Fatty acids
        • Amphipathic carboxylic acids - long hydrocarbons - may be unsaturated
      • Triacylglycerols
        • Storage of lipids - 3 fatty acids join to a glycerol - ester links
      • Phospholipids
        • Membrane protein - phosphate and diacylglycerol
        • membrances are asymmetric
    • Lecture 3 - origins of eukaryotic cells
      • Chimeric
        • host cells occupided by an endosimbiant (mitochondria)
      • host cells were archaea
      • endosymbiant cells were of bacterial origin
      • eukaryotic cells arose via symbiosis
        • between archaea and bacteria
    • Lecture 4 - Eukaryotic cell structure
      • Prokaryotic cells are simplier than Euk cells
      • Membranes self assemble
      • Eukaryotic cells compartmentalise their cells into organelles of specific functioin
      • cells have specific function
      • Antiporter, Symporter, Uniporter
    • Lecture 5 - Mitochondria and chloroplasts
      • Mitochondria have many features which reflect their origin
      • Mito-related organelles share structural features
      • Mitosomes
        • Vestigial mitochondria which retain limited proteone
        • No ATP Genetaton
      • Plastids
        • Chloroplasts
        • arise from endosimbiants - cynobacteria
      • Mitochondrial DNA contains no Histone proteins
    • Lecture 6 - Origins of complexity
      • Eukaryotic cells are more complex on a cellular level and above
      • Prokaryotic cells are limited by SA/V ration and chemiosmotic coupling
      • MItochondria and plastids  allow fine control of ETC in indiviual organisms
        • Because of small genome
        • This limits the reactive oxygen species production
          • H2O2
      • Embryogenesis
        • Plants
          • Inital asymmetic division
          • apical cel - embryo via clevagel
          • basal cell - suspension via anchor
        • Animals
          • Mitosis
          • No growth
            • Clevage
    • Lecture 7 - cytoskeleton and mobility
      • Involved in:
        • cell to cell interaction
        • Cell division
        • Cell polarity
        • Motility
        • Support
      • Comprised of:
        • Microfilaments
          • Actin filaments
            • very labile - cell movement
        • Microtubles
          • alpha and beta tubulin heterodimers
            • ****logous but not identical
            • alpha tublin binds to GTP
            • Beta tublin hydrolyses GTP to GDP + Pi
            • Growth of the centrosome, also tracks chromosome segregation
        • Intermediate filaments
          • Dynein and Kinesin
            • 'Walk' along the microtibules
            • ATP Dependent
            • Movement of cargo
      • Cell movement
        • cell polarity (-/+)
        • interactions with substrate
        • cytoskeleton
        • chemotaxis
    • Lecture 8 - cell communication
      • Organisms must have a communication system
      • Short and long range
      • Various types of extracellular receptor molecules sense signalling molecules
        • Linked to signal transduction pathway e.g. ion channels and secondary messengers

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