Bio Unit 2

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  • Created by: Lottie_C
  • Created on: 02-04-16 14:16
Cell membrane
controls passage of substance into/out of cell
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protein synthesis takes place here
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Cellulose cell wall
strengthens cell and gives it support
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absorb light energy to make food
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chemical reactions take place here
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energy released during respiration from here
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filled with cell sap, keeps cells rigid
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controls activities in cells
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glandular tissue
secretory cells who produce substances
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Xylem and Phloem
transport tissues
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Muscular tissue
contracts to bring about movement
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epithelial tissue
covers and protects surfaces
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chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis inside
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specialised cell
carry out particular function
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made up of tissues, work together
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group of cells with similar structure and work together
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organ system
group of organs
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organs in animals
stomach, pancreas, mouth etc
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bacterial cell
cytoplasm, membrane, cell wall, genes not in nucleus
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yeast cell
nucleus, cell wall, cytoplasm, membrane
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dissolved substances
can move into and out of cells by diffusion
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required for respiration, passes through the cell membranes by diffusion
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spreading of particles of a gas or any substance in solution resulting in net movement
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cells (dissolved substances)
dissolved substances have to pass through cell membranes to get in/out of cells via diffusion
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examples of dissolved substances
gut moves digested food products from gut cavity to blood capillary
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increasing diffusion
increase temperature, surface area, concentration gradient
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movement of water from less concentrated to more concentrated solution
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net movement
particles moves from region where they are of a higher concentration to a region with lower concentration. Greater the difference in concentration, faster the rate of diffusion
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Photosynthesis equation
carbon dioxide + water with sunlight and chlorophyll makes glucose and oxygen
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cuticle, epidermis, pallisade, spongy layer, stomata, guard cell, vein
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growing plants in water so they have the perfect balance of minerals
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when animals excrete them they're spread apart so no competition and they can grow in manure (a fertiliser)
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how does photosynthesis work?
light energy absorbed, converted to carbon dioxide and water to glucose, oxygen released as a by-product
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can control temperature which speeds up plant growth
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limiting factors of photosynthesis
shortage of light, low temperature, shortage of carbon dioxide
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controlling environments
turnover faster, profits high, crops unspoilt, no preparing the land
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uses of glucose
starch for storage, fats, nitrates to growing organisms, protein in leaves, sucrose/fructose, make new cell walls, tissue respiration
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producing proteins
plants use nitrate ions absorbed from soil
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biological catalysts, proteins that allow smaller molecules to fit in them, substrate molecules fit into active site
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turns starch to sugars, found in salivary gland, pancreas, small intestine
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turns lipids to fatty acids and glycerol, found in pancreas, small intestine
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turns proteins to amino acids, found in stomach, small intestine, pancreas
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substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed/used up
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if PH changes enzymes can change shape
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enzymes in stomach
hydrochloric acid kills bacteria, works best in acidic conditions (low PH)
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enzymes in home
protease pre-digests proteins in baby food, lipase in biological detergent, carbohydrase converts starch to glucose, isomerase in slimming foods
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if temperature increases, rate of reaction increases but if too high temperature enzyme denatures, in humans said to work best at 37 degrees
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breaking down foods which can be absorbed into blood
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enzymes in industry
ensure processes can be carried out at normal temperatures, reduces amount of energy and equipment so cost decreases
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physical factors that may affect organisms
temperature, availability of nutrients, amount of light, availability of water, availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide
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data on the distribution of organisms can be obtained by
random sampling with quadrats, sampling along a transect
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heart rate increases, rate and depth of breathing increases, increases blood and oxygen flow to muscles and rate of removal of carbon dioxide, glycogen in muscles converted back to glucose
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lactic acid
formed from incomplete breakdown of glucose (anaerobic)
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chemical reactions
controlled by enzymes (in cells)
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plants and animals
aerobic respiration continuosly
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anaerobic respiration
incomplete breakdown of glucose so less energy released than aerobic, if insufficient oxygen reaching muscles, anaerobic respiration used to obtain energy
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most aerobic respiration takes place here
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process by which all living cells release energy from food
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long period of exercise (lactic acid) muscles contract inefficiently
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oxygen debt
result of anaerobic respiration, has to be repaid to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water
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energy released during respiration
build larger molecules, enable muscles to contract, maintain body temperature, build up sugars, nitrates, proteins
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carries genetic code that determines characteristics
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short section of DNA that codes for a protein
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cell division that leads to growth/repair, 2 new cells formed that are identical to each other and original
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different forms of the same genes, dominant or recessive
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recessive allele
only shows if 2 copies
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dominant allele
always shows, even if only one copy
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males have XY, females have **
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contain one set of genetic information (normal body cells contain 2)
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looked at pea plants, saw that 3/4 red from dominant alleles
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Gametes formed by meiosis, cells formed have 1/2 as many chromosomes as original, chromosomes are copied and the cell divides twice
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long DNA molecules, in nucleus
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Cystic Fibrosis
inherited, recessive allele, must be inherited from both parents
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Stages of mitosis
parent cell, chromosomes in nucleus duplicate, cell splits forming 2 new cells with one of each chromosome
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new cells formed by fusion of gametes, divides lots by mitosis
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stages of meiosis
chromosomes in parents duplicate, similar chromosomes join, part of DNA swapped, pairs of chromosomes divide, cells divide twice
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dominant allele, passed on by 1 parent
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preserved remains or trace of dead organism
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oldest rocks
simplest organisms
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decaying process
slowed down by insufficient oxygen, low temperatures, high soil acidity, if not present fossilisation won't take place
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covered by layers of sediments to preserve
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newest rocks
more complex organisms
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early life
soft-bodied so few traces, traces may have been destroyed due to geographical activity
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species arising
isolation, genetic variation, natural selection, speciation
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how are fossils formed?
hard part of organisms (bones not skin or flesh) that don't decay easily, partially decayed organisms, preserved traces of organisms, part of organism replaced by other materials as they decay
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hard part of organisms
covered in layers of sediments, overtime gradually replaced by minerals
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change to environment, predators, disease, competitors, catastrophic events, cycle of speciation
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what we can learn from fossils?
how much/little organisms have changed as developed on Earth
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dead plants and animals can be preserved in amber, peat bogs, tar pits, ice
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Card 2




protein synthesis takes place here

Card 3


Cellulose cell wall


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