Beyond the Solar System

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How many planets are in the solar system?
Eight - Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Pluto (dwarf planet)
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Excluding planets, name THREE other things which orbit our sun.
Asteroids, Comets and Moons.
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How old is the Solar System?
Five thousand million years,
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What is the source of the suns energy?
Nuclear fusion - it turns hydrogen into helium.
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What are comets made of?
Ice, dust and rocks.
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Estimate the amount of stars in the Milky Way.
Around 100 billion.
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What is a light year?
It is the distance travelled by light in one year.
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Roughly, how many times larger is the Milky Way's diameter than that of the suns?
Around 600 billion times larger.
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What is parallax?
Parallax is when you look at an object, and it appears to move when you look at it from different angles.
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Why do we see stars and galaxies as they were in the past?
We see them as they were in the past because they are so far away, that the light that they emit has taken a long time to get to us, so we see how they were then, with that light, and not how they are now.
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What is Red Shift?
When an object moves away from its observer, its light is affected by the doppler effect.
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What evidence is there to say that the universe is expanding?
The more distant a galaxy, the faster it is moving away from us.
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Name the process that wears mountains down.
Erosion.
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What is Wegeners theory of continental drift?
Tectonic plates forces countries apart, creating new continents. Each side had similar rock formations and fossils.
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Why was Wegeners theory rejected at first? Give three reasons.
He was not a geologist, his theory explained things which could not be explained by the 'land bridge theory', no one believed what he said about continents 'drifting'.
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How fast are the sea floors spreading each year?
A few centimetres per year.
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What causes tectonic plates to drift?
Magma rises up, solidifies and creates underwater mountains.
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Where do most eartquakes and volcanoes occur?
Near the edges of tectonic plates.
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How are the Himalayas being formed?
Through collisions of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates which started 50 million years ago and still happen today.
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What type of seismic wave camnnot pass through liquid?
S waves - they can only travel through solids. They are also slower than P waves.
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Which wave is transverse and which wave is longditudinal?
P waves are longditudinal and S waves are transverse.
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What happens when a wave hits a boundary?
Some will reflect.
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What do changes in speed cause?
A change in direction (or refraction)
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What is the equation to work out the wave speed?
Wave Speed = Frequency x Wavelength
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Excluding planets, name THREE other things which orbit our sun.

Back

Asteroids, Comets and Moons.

Card 3

Front

How old is the Solar System?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the source of the suns energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are comets made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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