B2: Understanding our environment

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  • Created by: Theex
  • Created on: 19-04-14 12:35
Natural classification systems?
Organising based on evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities
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Artificial classification systems?
Based upon appereance
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Classification system
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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Species
A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Issues with classifying species?
Organisms which reproduce asexually, hybrids - infertile making them difficult to classify, evolution is a continuous procces
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What is the binomial naming system?
Two part Latin name, comprising of genus then species.
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Whats the difference between a pyramid of biomass and number?
Biomass - dry mass of living material in that trophic level, Number - number of organims at that trophic level
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3 ways in which energy is lost from the food chain?
Respiration, as heat, in waste products (bonus point: This can lead to the start of a new food chain)
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Interspecific competition
Organims compete against organisms of another species
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intraspecific competition
Organisms compete against organims of the same species
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Parasitic relationship
Lives of host, takes what they need to survive but no benefits to host. Sometimes these relationships can be harmful to the host
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Mutualistic relationship
Both organisms benefit (example 'cleaner species')
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Specialists
Organisms that are highly adapted to survive in specific conditions
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Generalists
Organims that are adapted to survive in a range of different habitats/conditions
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Name 2 biochemical adaptations
Extremophile bacteria who's enzymes have a higher optimum temperature. Organisms in cold climates have anti-freeze proteins
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3 anatomical adaptations to cold climates
Thick coat/layer of blubber, small SA:volume, counter current heat exchange
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3 behavioural adaptations to cold climates
Migration, huddling (penguins), hibernation
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3 anatomical adaptations to hot climates
Large SA:volume, large thin ears, store fat in one body part
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3 behavioural adaptations to hot climates
spend day in shade/underground, active at night, bathe in water
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4 plant adaptations to dry climates
Round shape - small SA:Volume, cuticles and spines (instead of leaves), water stores in stem, shallow but extensive root system
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3 animal adaptations to dry climates
specialised kidney, no sweat glands, lots of time underground
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Natural selection
'Survival of the fittest' - best adapted organims survive to reproduce and pass on their advantageous adaptations
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Speciation
when organism evolve so much, a completely new species is formed
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2 conditions that slow decomposition
Waterlogged soil - less oxygen, acidic soil - slows reproduction
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Name 2 methods of nitrogen fixation
lightning and nitrogen fixing bacteria (found in soil and root nodules of some legume plants
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What do decomposers do?
break down proteins into ammonia
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Nitrifying bacteria?
ammonia -> nitrates
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Denitrifying bacteria
nitrates -> nitrogen gas
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Name 2 indicator species and their use
Lichen - air quality, damaged by pollution, Mayfly larvae - water quality, can't survive in polluted water
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advantages of living methods to measure pollution
cheap, quick and easy. no need for specialists
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disadvantages of living methods to measure pollution
other factors can affect survival, so it's not always reliable
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advantages of non-living methods to measure pollution
reliable, numeric data which is easy to compare. The pollutants can be identified
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disadvantages of non-living methods to measure pollution
Requires expensive equipment and scientists to carry out
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4 important things for conservation programmes
enough genetic variation, viability of population, available habitats,normal interaction
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Sustainable development
Providing for today's rapidly increasing population without damaging the environment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Based upon appereance

Back

Artificial classification systems?

Card 3

Front

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Organisms which reproduce asexually, hybrids - infertile making them difficult to classify, evolution is a continuous procces

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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