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Keeping healthy
1. Diet and exercise
2. Defending against infection
A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise is needed to help keep
the body healthy. Our bodies provide an excellent environment for many
microbes which can make us ill once they are inside us. Our bodies need to
stop most microbes getting in and deal with any microbes which do get in.
Vaccination can be used to prevent infection.
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
· evaluate information about the effect of food on health
· evaluate information about the effect of lifestyle on development of
· analyse and evaluate claims made by slimming programmes, and slimming
products.…read more

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Nerves and Hormones
1. Nervous system
2. Control in the human body
3. Control in plants
· The nervous system and hormones enable us to respond to external changes. They
also help us to control conditions inside our bodies. Hormones are used in some
forms of contraception and in fertility treatments. Plants also produce hormones and
respond to external stimuli.
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
· Additional guidance:
· evaluate the benefits of, and the problems that may Candidates will be given data to
work from. arise from, the use of hormones to control fertility,
including In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
· evaluate the use of plant hormones in horticulture as weedkillers and to encourage
the rooting of
plant cuttings.…read more

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The use and abuse of drugs
1. Drugs
· Drugs affect our body chemistry. Medical drugs are developed and tested before
being used to relieve illness or disease. Drugs may also be used recreationally as
people like the effect on the body. Some drugs are addictive. Some athletes take
drugs to improve performance. People cannot make sensible decisions about drugs
unless they know their full effects.
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
· evaluate the effect of statins in cardiovascular disease
· evaluate different types of drugs and why some people use illegal drugs for
· evaluate claims made about the effect of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs on
· consider the possible progression from recreational drugs to hard drugs
· evaluate the use of drugs to enhance performance in sport and to consider the
ethical implications of
their use.…read more

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Interdependence and adaptation
1. Adaptations
2. Environmental change
· Organisms are well adapted to survive in their normal environment. Population size
depends on a variety of factors including competition, predation, disease and human
influences. Changes in the environment may affect the distribution and behaviour of
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
· suggest how organisms are adapted to the conditions in which they live
· observe the adaptations, eg body shape, of a range of organisms from different
· develop an understanding of the ways in which adaptations enable organisms to
· suggest the factors for which organisms are competing in a given habitat
· evaluate data concerned with the effect of environmental changes on the
distribution and behaviour of living organisms.…read more

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Food chains, energy, biomass and
1. energy in biomass
2. Carbon cycle
· By observing the numbers and sizes of the organisms
in food chains we can find out what happens to energy
and biomass as it passes along the food chain.
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and
understanding to:
· interpret pyramids of biomass and construct them
from appropriate information.…read more

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