Aspects of International Relations (PART THREE)

Aspects of International Relations 1945-2004

What was Detente?
-Relaxation of tensions
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What were the causes of Detente?
-Nixon and Kissinger (Vietnam War costs) -Sino-American Rapprochment -Sino-Soviet Split -Economic issues -Cuban Missile Crisis -Spheres of influence -Ostpolitik -Hamel Report
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When was the Oil Crisis?
1973
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How much did OPEC raise oil prices?
75%
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Why?
To cripple Israeli supporters (USA/Britain)
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Why does this contribute to Detente?
-Forces negotiation to lower arms spending due to economic damages caused by rise in oil prices
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What was Soviet growth rate in the 1970s?
3% compared to 5.2% growth rate in the 60s
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How much was given in aid to Cuba per year by the USSR?
$4 billion
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How does this motivate Detente?
-Forces negotiation to lower arms spending due to inability to afford Ninth Five Year Industrial Plan due to poor economy
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When was the Vietnam War?
1965-1973
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When was Operation Menu and what was it?
1969-1970 bombing of Cambodia and Laos
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Who applied pressure for end of Vietnam War in the US?
Public and American Right Wing due to lack of domestic reform
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What was Nixon's vision for withdrawal?
'Peace With Honor'
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When was the Ping Pong match between China and the USA?
1971
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When did Nixon visit China?
1972
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How much did trade increase in this period of Rapprochment?
From $15 million to $500 million
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When was Taiwan expelled from the UN?
1971
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When was diplomatic recognition of China given?
1978
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What motivated China into better Sino-US relations?
-Geopolitical reasons (INDIA AND JAPAN EITHER SIDE) -Sino-Soviet split
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Why were the US motivated into better Sino-US relations?
-To force concessions out of the USSR -So China would apply pressure to N.Vietnamese
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When did Khrushchev visit the USA and what did this cause?
-1959 -A decline in Sino-Soviet relations
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When did China acquire the bomb?
1964
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When did the Chinese attack the Beijing Russian Embassy?
1967
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When was the Prague Spring?
1968
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Who was the liberalising leader of Czechoslovakia at the time?
Dubcek
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How did the Soviet Union respond and what did this policy become known as?
-Sent in troops -The Brezhnev Doctrine
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Why did this upset China?
-Feared eventual Soviet takeover of China
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When was the Ussuri River Border Dispute?
1969
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What are the two main points of decline in Sino-Soviet relations?
-Stalin's death 1953 -China's acquisition of the bomb 1964
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What did this decline mean for Detente?
-USSR more likely to negotiate with USA in conjunction with Sino-American Rapprochment
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What was Ostpolitik?
-Eastern Policy -Detente in Europe
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Who led this policy?
Willy Brandt German Chancellor
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What did Ostpolitik end?
Adenauer's Hallstein Doctrine (no recognition of GDR)
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When was the Non-Aggression Pact?
1970
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When was the Berlin Agreement and what did it achieve?
1971 -East Germany formerly recognised by the West -Oder Neisse border reinstated (Improves German-Polish relations)
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When was the Basic Treaty?
1972
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When were the Helsinki Accords and what was the key basket?
1973-1975 -SECURITY IN EUROPE
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What did this effectively do?
-Remove the long term issue of Europe from Superpower tensions
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Why did Ostpolitik motivate the USA into Detente?
US feared loss of influence in Europe -Loss of Superpower status due to German lead of peace in Europe
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What evidence is there of growing European detachment from the USA in this period?
1966 France leaves NATO and Degaulle forms relations across the Iron Curtain with Romania
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What did the Prague Spring of 1968 say about Soviet motivations for Detente?
-Feared loss of influence over the Eastern Bloc
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Why did Nuclear parity motivate Detente?
-Equivalent nuclear capability forced Superpowers into negotiation on Arms Limitation Treaties
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What did SALT I detail?
-Reduction to 2 anti-ballistic missile ranges with no more than 100 missiles each (Each side)
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When were the SALT II talks?
1974-1979
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Why did SALT II never have any substance?
-Never ratified by the US Senate in 1979
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Why was this?
-Arguably due to Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
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What were the reasons for Detentes end?
-Invasion of Afghanistan 1979 -Economic issues -Neo-conservative call -Brezhnev's failing health -Angolan Civil War/Yom Kippur War
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How many Cuban troops were sent to aid the MPLA in Angola?
12000
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What did Angola say about Detente?
-Demise of Detente -Breaking of the Basic Principles/Helsinki Accords due to intervention in other countries
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How did the Yom Kippur War contribute to Detente's end?
-Breaking of the Basic Principles/Helsinki Accords
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How did neo-conservatives bring about the end of Detente?
Applied pressure throughout the period suggesting Detente simply allowed for Soviet expansion and arms build up
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How did the Invasion of Afghanistan bring about Detente's end?
-Catalysed Carter's reaction which reversed the progress made by Detente
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What was Carter's reaction?
-Presidential Directive 59 (nuclear arms spending increase) -Boycott of 1980 Moscow Olympics -Carter Doctrine (Military intervention if Soviet's intervened in Persian Gulf/Middle East) -Trade Embargoes reinstated on Soviet Union
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In what way were economic issues a contributor to Detente's end?
In conjunction with both Afghanistan and the Iranian revolution in the context of the oil crisis. Oil could be used as a weapon thus the US feared loss of influence of soviet intervention in the Persian Gulf/Middle East due to oil area.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What were the causes of Detente?

Back

-Nixon and Kissinger (Vietnam War costs) -Sino-American Rapprochment -Sino-Soviet Split -Economic issues -Cuban Missile Crisis -Spheres of influence -Ostpolitik -Hamel Report

Card 3

Front

When was the Oil Crisis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How much did OPEC raise oil prices?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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