The collapse of the Liberal state and the Triumph of Fascism in Italy, 1896-1945.

My notes on AS History about Mussolini and Fascism 

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  • Created on: 14-05-12 19:43
Preview of The collapse of the Liberal state and the Triumph of Fascism in Italy, 1896-1945.

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1933-41 Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
The Nature of the political system
The new state of Italy that had emerged in the 1860s
represented a triumph for liberals.
The old forces of traditional authority- the ruling families of the
different states, the old aristocracy and the pope- had all been
defeated.
It was a rather conservative version of liberalism which
triumphed.
The new Italy was a monarchy, not a republic. One royal family
had replaced all the others. The House of Savoy, the ruling
family of Piedmont, were now kings of Italy and in some ways
Italian unification was the conquest of Italy by Piedmont.
Although the new state was Liberal, traditions of royal
authoritarianism lived on in the new united Italy.
The king exercised real power; he was head of the army, he
selected the prime minster.
The king in 1896 was Umberto I and although he was of limited
intellect he did exercise a decisive influence on government
from time to time. He pushed for the triple alliance with
Germany and Austria.
The army was not only a prop to royal authority but a crucial
national institution. It was vital in holding the new country
together sometimes by force.
The army drilled a sense of nationalism and common language
recruits who spoke local dialects and had little sense of
national identity.
There was army conscription.
The dominant politician in 1880 and early 1890s was Francesco
Crispi.
Giolitti came to power in from 1903 until 1914 but still fell back
on the trasformismo scheme.
Economic Problems
In 1896 Italy was economically poor and backward in
comparison with Britain, France and the new Germany.
Income per head in Italy was £8 per year whilst in France it
was £26 and Britain was £31.
Agricultural labourers- the most common occupation in Italy's
population of 30 million- earned under the equivalent of 50p a
week on which to keep their often large families.
In the late 19th century world food prices collapsed.
Cheap wheat from the USA, Canada and Russia drove prices
down in 1870s and 1880s, hurting Italian farmers and leading
to a demand in protective tariffs.
The price of land fell in Sicily by 40%.

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
In 1887 a wheat tariff was introduced and then increased,
reaching 75 lire per ton by 1894.
The consequences were disastrous; it increased the price of
bread for the poor and produced a tariff war with France, which
cut exports to that country of a whole range of agricultural
products.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
cajoled or manipulated into supporting the government, than
could those in the North with a larger electorate.
The cultural variations that undermined unity.
The north and South were so different that it made them still
feel like completely different countries.
They had different languages and different type of land and
cultural differences.
The North were rich and the South were incredibly poor and
illiterate.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
D'Annunzio excited the Italian youth with his entertaining
songs and plays such as "The Ship" with its bloody story of
revenge and heroic deeds. Italians wanted to be excited and
the liberal state was not exciting.
Giolitti's attempted political reform.
Increased the electorate to 9 million in 1912- a huge reform.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
Why entry into the War was divisive and its
outcome disappointing.
The war did not prove to be the good move that Giolitti had
expected.
He was blamed for slowness and the cost of the conquest and
the nationalists got the credit for the victory.
The Socialists opposed the war, causing division between them
and Giolitti.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
An aeronautical industry sprang up virtually from scratch and, in
1918 alone, 6500 planes were built.
The driving force behind the Italian war effort was the
industrial mobilisation system of economic planning.
Companies central to the war effort were placed under
industrial mobilisation, which regulated hours of work and
wages, prohibited strikes and subjected employees to military
discipline.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
Manual workers also flocked to the socialist trade unions,
boosting their membership from 250,000 to 2 million between
1918 and 1920.
A further 1.2 million workers, mainly engaged in textiles or
agriculture, belonged to Catholic trade Unions.
Returning soldiers, who possessed only small discharge
payments, were angry about their poor job prospects in the
post-war economic downturn.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
in Italy, however in 1920, Giolitti marginalised D'Annunzio by
negotiating the treaty of Rapallo.
ToR meant that Italy received the whole of Istria and Italian
speakers in Dalmatia could choose to become Italian citizens.
Fiume was made an independent city under international
control. D'Annunzio did not like this and rashly declared war on
Italy, after a whole load of fighting and Italy attacking
D'Annunzio's palace he surrendered.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
In December 1918 PSI adopted a policy of revolution. They
joined the Comintern and sent high-level representatives to the
Soviet Union.
PSI was now committed to a socialist republic and the
dictatorship of the proletariat- or manual labourers- the
socialist Party organised loads of strikes, protests and
demonstrations in Italy.
It attracted HUGE support, with membership increasing from
50,000 to 200,000 between 1914 and 1919.…read more

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Building the new Roman Empire:
Abyssinia, Spain and Italy's diplomatic and military
preparations for war. 12/05/2012 14:42
rule, rejection of parliamentary democracy, belief in a powerful
leader or dictator, desire to control all aspects of life within a
totalitarian state.
Their main tactics were around violence and terror- very
militaristic style of leadership.
The Role of Mussolini as leader and of his links
with other groups, institutions and individuals.…read more

Comments

NZLHistory

This is a very detailed but clear complete set of revision notes for Italy 1896-1945. Excellent for acquiring additional knowledge.

mebeblessing

     you have saved my life 

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