International Relations Bulleted Notes

  • Created by: MillerS7
  • Created on: 22-04-18 15:52

International Relations

Foreign Relations in Lenin’s Reign, 1917 – 1924

Foreign Intervention in the Civil War

Ø  1918 - 1920 foreign troops were stationed in widespread areas of conflict; from the Baltic Sea, to the Black Sea, to the Far East. 

Ø  However, it always seemed like a threat to Bolshevik Russia. 


Reasons for Foreign Intervention During WWI

Ø  1918 — Main motive was too keep Russia in WWI and to prevent or delay the mass transfer of German forces from the Eastern Front to the West.

Ø  Lesser motive was to protect vast dumps of armaments and war materials that had been shipped to Russia by her allies.

Ø  After German Armistice (Nov 1918) main motive no longer applied but foreign intervention continued because of the wish to support anti-Bolshevik forces.

Ø  Foreign intervention continued due to divisions and muddled thinking within allied government.


Foreign Intervention

Ø  British and French — British Navy patrolled the Baltic Seas. 

Ø  Far East — 11,000 USA troops were based in Vladivostok. 

Ø  British and French Naval Forces — based in Southern Russia, Ukraine, Black Sea. 

Ø  Central Siberia and sections of Siberian Railway — controlled by Czech Legion. 


Problem with Foreign Intervention during the Civil War

Ø  Government had little accurate or up-to-date knowledge of what was actually happening and were therefore often out of touch with the speed of events.

Ø  Governments depended on a handful of individuals who sent snippets on information, but these reports were sometimes misleading. Sometimes they were reliable but not listened to. 

Ø  1919 — a secret American diplomatic mission to Moscow briefly raised hopes for a possible peace compromise.

Ø  This peace plan lapsed when President Wilson and Britain and France failed to back US diplomat, William C Bullitt’s attempt at a compromise with Lenin.


Impact of Foreign Intervention

Ø  Did not bring down the Bolshevik regime as they were on a small scale, with little coordination.

Ø  November 1920 – British government agreed to negotiate a trade agreement with Bolshevik Russia, the Anglo-Soviet Pact.

Ø  Lenin and the Bolsheviks started out as an isolated regime, relations with foreign powers were hostile during the Civil War.


The Comintern

Ø  Founding of the Third Communist International (Comintern) was established as a socialist organisation promoting Marxism and spreading ‘proletariat revolution’ from Russia to the world. 

Ø  The Communist Manifesto– Marx and Engels issued this manifesto to promote Marxist ideology in 1849. 

Ø  The First Founding Congress of the Comintern was held in Moscow (March 1919) and the chairman of the early Comintern was Grigorii Zinoviev, but the dominating influence was always Lenin.

Ø  There was great optimism during the First Congress about the prospects for the spread of revolution from Russia to the wider world. 

Ø  The Second Comintern Congress took place in Petrograd (July – August 1920) at


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