AS Philosophy: The Onotological Argument

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 28-04-15 20:13
What is Ontology?
Ontology is the branch of philosophy which explores the concept of existence
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What are the two ways in which something can exist?
Necessary form and Contingent form
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What type of argument is the Ontological argument?
1. A priori argument - working from first principle and definition 2. Deductive Argument - Logi > Evidence
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Why are humans contingent?
They rely on external factors to fuel their existence
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How is God different to human beings - according to religious believers?
God is necessary rather than contingent. Ex ni Hilio
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What is Paul Tillich's belief?
The existence of God is different to the existence of anything else
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Explain 'faith seeking understanding'
Anslem believed that faith was more important than reasoned argument
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In what chapter, and what book can Anslem's first argument be found?
Chapter 2, Proslogin
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'God is that which _ can be thought _ existent being would be greater than an _ illusionary being. Therefore the conept of
God is that which nothing greater can be thought. A real , existent being would be greater than an imaginary, illusionary being. Therefore the conept of God is surpassed by an actual, existent God'.
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What analogy can be used to support Anslem's first argument?
Money
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What was Anslem's response to Gaunilo's criticism, which led to his 2nd argument? (2)
1.God is necessary and must exist, because the only thing that can cease to exist are contingent beings. 2. Being necessary is part of God's definition
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Why are necessary beings greater than contingent beings?
Because necessary beings cannot fail to exist - eternal
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What is an analytic proposition? (2)
1. True by definition 2. Can be arrived through deduction.
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What is a synthetic proposition?
2. Adds to our understanding 2. requires the need of experience
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'The _ says in his _ There is _ _ ' _ 53:1
'The fool says in his heart. There is no God' Psalm 53:1
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How did Gaunilo criticise Anslem?
1. Objected Anslem's claim that God exists by definition 2. Replaced God with an island 3. Cannot being something to existence by defining it as superlative.
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In what book can Descartes' reformulation of the Ontological argument can be found?
Meditations
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What was Descartes idea on innate ideas?
People were born with innate ideas which were shared by al of humanity.
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What analogies did Descartes use to support his belief on predicates and innate ideas?
1. Triangle = 180 degrees 2. Mountain and Valley
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What was the predicate of God?
Existence
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Explain Descartes thought process to arrive to the existence of God?
1. Descartes argued that existence is part of the essence of God, just as the 3 angles adding up to 180 degrees are the essence of the triangle, and the valley is the essence of the mountain. 2God is understood to be a supremely perfect being.
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What was Aquinas' main criticism?
Gods existence cannot be regarded self-evident - it is beyond human understanding.
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'Truth doesn't exist'- How did Aquinas work with this quote?
How did Aquinas believe you could prove God's existence?
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What was Kant's main criticism?
Existence is not a predicate
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Explain Malcom's thought process to arriving to the conclusion that God exists?
1. God must exist 2. Must exist necessarily 3. His existence is either impossible or necessary 4God’s existence is not impossible because it is not logically contradictory to have the concept of god to exist.
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What did Alvin Plantinga use to explain God's existence?
1. Used Modal Logic 2. 'Maximal greatness' 2. Must be necessary as contingent beings rely on external factors.
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How did Aquinas believe you could prove God's existence?
His five ways were capable of collecting evidence.
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'God is what which nothing greater can be thought. Because God is _ is _ _, God must have _ existence. Therefore God exists - necessarily'.
God is what which nothing greater can be thought. Because God is unsurpassable in everyway, God must have necessary existence. therefore God exists - necessarily'.
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'Existence can no _ be _ from the essence of God than can its having three angles _ to two right angles be separated from the _ of a triangle.'
Existence can no more be separated from the essence of god than can its having three angles equal to two right angles be separated from the essence of a triangle.
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Card 2

Front

What are the two ways in which something can exist?

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Necessary form and Contingent form

Card 3

Front

What type of argument is the Ontological argument?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are humans contingent?

Back

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Card 5

Front

How is God different to human beings - according to religious believers?

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