AS Geography - Coasts

what is a tombola?
where a spit joins into a landform
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describe a high energy coastline
have very powerful waves, rate of erosion is higher than rate of deposition
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what erosional landforms tend to be found in high energy areas?
headlands,cliffs and shoreline platforms
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describe a low energy coastline
less powerful waves, rate of deposition is higher than rate of erosion
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what depositional landforms tend to be found in low energy areas?
beaches, spits and coastal plains
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describe igneous rock and give an example
very strong e.g: basalt and granite
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describe sedimentary rock and give an example
quite strong e.g: old red sandstone
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describe metamorphic rock and give an example
can be strong but can be broken up due to being metamorphasised e.g: slate, schists
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describe clay/mud
weak, water soaks in it and its on top of the mud and water and slides forward
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what is a resistant rock coastline?
a coastline made up of igneous and metamorphic rock
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what are the characteristics of a coastal plain landscape?
low energy, more deposition than erosion
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what is "the wash"?
area of low, flat relief referred to as coastal plain
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what is a concordant coastline?
rock runs parallel to the coast
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what landforms are created on a concordant coastline?
stacks, stumps, arches & caves
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what is a discordant coastline?
rock runs perpendicular to the coast
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what landforms are created on a discordant coastline?
headlands & bays
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what is a submergent coastline?
have been flooded due to sea level rise(eustatic), type of concordant coastline
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what is a haff coast?
have long spits of sand and lagoons aligned parallel to the coastline
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what is an emergent coastline?
coastlines formed where water levels have fallen, or land has risen. This happens due to isostatic change
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what is syncline?
oldest rocks on outside
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what is anticline?
oldest rocks on inside
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what is coastal recession?
another term for coastal erosion
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what is a joint?
fractures, caused by contraction as sediments dry out or by earth movements during uplift
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what is strata?
layers of rock
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what is a dip?
angle at which strata lie ( horizontal or vertical, towards the sea or dipping linland)
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what is lithology?
the physical characteristics of particular rocks
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what is coastal morphology?
the shape and form of coastal landscapes and their features
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what are bedding planes?
natural breaks in the strata, caused by gaps in time during periods of rock formation
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what are folds?
formed by pressure during tectonic activity, makes rocks buckle and crumble
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what are faults?
formed when the stress or pressure to which a rock is subjected, exceeds its internal strength
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what is a cliff profile?
the relief (height or slope) of the land, affected by geology and geophysical structure
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what factors influence rate of erosion?
lithology or rock type
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what is permeability?
amount of liquid that gets through the rock layers
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name some coastal vegetation
coastal sand dunes, coastal salt marshes, coastal mangrove swamps
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how to plants protect the coast from erosion?
roots bind sediment so its harder to erode, roots provide a protective layer, protect sediment from wind erosion by reducing wind speed
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describe halophytes
can tolerate salt water around their roots, being submerged at high tides and spray from waves
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describe xerophytes
can tolerate very ry conditions
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what is succession?
refers to how a group of plants changes over time. one community of plants is replaced by another as succession develops
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what is a pioneer species?
specialised plants
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what are constructive waves?
they have a stronger swash than backwash
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what are destructive waves?
they have a stronger backwash than swash
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what sediment do constructive waves carry?
small particles such as sand
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what sediment do destructive waves carry?
large particles such as shingle, pebbles, rocks
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what is hydraulic action?
large destructive waves break on a cliff for one or two seconds and the force exerts a lot of pressure
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what influence does hydraulic action have on lithology?
when the water from the wave suddenly falls, the pressure is released explosively which can shatter the rock
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what is abrasion?
waves pick up particles of sand and pebbles and throw and scrape them against a cliff, eroding it (rock on rock)
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what influence does abrasion have on lithology?
results in undercutting a cliff at high tides, especially in stormy conditions, leaves behind wave notches and sea caves
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what is attrition?
occurs when boulders, rock particles, pebbles and sand are constantly moved around by waves (rock on water)
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how does attrition influence lithology?
rocks are broken down into smaller and smaller pieces until they're completely dissolved or tiny
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what is corrosion?
seawater and salt spray from waves react with rock minerals and dissolve them, the rock minerals are then carried away in solution
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how does corrosion influence lithology?
rock dissolved by sea spray and the minerals are hen carried away in solution with sea water
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what are the three types of sub-aerial processes?
mechanical, chemical and biological
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name the three types of mechanical process
freeze-thaw, salt chrystallisation and wetting and drying
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name the three types of chemical process
carbonation, hydrolysis and oxidation
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name the three types of biological process
plant roots, rock boring and animals
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what is freeze-thaw?
water enters cracks in rock in wet weather and freezes when weather gets cold causing it to expand in size and so further cracking the rock causing it to break off
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what is salt crystallisation?
salt water evaporates, leaves salt crystals behind the salt on the rocks stays there and causes the rock to break up, the salt can also corrode the rock
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what is wetting and drying?
clay rich rocks expand when they get wet and contract as they dry which can cause them to crack
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what is carbonation?
dissolution of limestone due to rainfall producing calcium bicarbonate in solution. affects limestone and other carbonate rocks
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what is hydrolysis?
breakdown of minerals to form new clay materials and materials in solution due to effect of water and dissolved CO2
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what is oxidation?
oxygen to minerals especially ion produce iron oxides and increases volume contribution to mechanical breakdown
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what are plant roots?
tree and plant roots grow into small cracks and fissures in rock which forces the rock to break down especially as the roots grow
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what is rock boring?
species of clams and mollusks bore into rock face
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what do animals do as a biological process?
birds such as puffins and animals such as rabbits dig burrows into cliffs and cause them to break
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what is eustatic change?
sea level itself rises or falls
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what isostatic change?
land rises or falls relative to sea
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how can tectonic events change sea levels?
the shape of the ocean basin can be changed, uplift of mountain ranges and tsunamis
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what is marine regression?
sea level drops and produces emergent coast
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what i marine transgression?
where the coastline is flooded and produces and submergent coastline
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what is a raised beach?
forms on emergent coastlines, a former beach now above the high tideline, some contain different levels
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what is a fossil cliff?
forms on an emergent coastline, near vertical slope initially formed by marine processes but now some distance inland
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what are rias?
form on submergent coastlines, a flooded river valley, during an ice age some areas were not covered with ice but had frozen ground, so rivers carved valley with steeper sides than usual
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what are Fjords?
form on submergent coastlines, a flooded glaciated valley during an ice age glaciers eroded U-shaped valleys, after the ice age melted all of the ice melted an rose the sea level, flooding it into the valley
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what is a dalmatian coast?
forms on a submergent coastline, features several linked parallel flooded valleys,with long island between them
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what are storm surges?
changes in sea level caused by intense low-pressure systems and high wind speeds.
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what is hard engineering?
building physical structures
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what is soft engineering?
natural process is worked with
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what are tangible benefits?
costs and benefits are known and can be assigned monetary value
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what are intangible benefits?
costs may be difficult to assess but are important
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name some types of hard engineering
groynes, sea walls, rip rap, revetments and offshore breakwater
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name some types of soft engineering
beach nourishment, cliff drainage, dune stabilisation and marsh creation
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of groynes?
Built up beach encourages tourist potential and they work with natural processes however they can effect longshore drift and are ugly
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of sea walls?
they effectively protect erosion and often have a promenade for people to walk on, however they reflect energy rather than absorb it and can look un natural
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of rip rap?
quite cheap and easy to construct often used for fishing or for tourists however can look out of place and can be dangerous
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of beach nourishment?
natural sediment makes the beach look natural, supports the tourist industry however doesn't last long
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of cliff drainage?
looks natural and is not always visible, reduces mass movement however it is difficult to put along the whole of a cliff and will not prevent mass movement only reduces it
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of marsh creation?
quite cheap, natural defense and good for wildlife however it causes agricultural land loss and farmers and land owners have to be compensated
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describe longshore drift
wave approach the beach at an angle of 30 degrees, the swash carries sediment up the beach at the angle it approaches and the backwash carries it back down at a right angle due to gravity, like a zig zag motion
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what determines the direction that longshore drift occurs?
the dominant wind and wave direction
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how can people manage the coast sustainably?
managing natural resources, monitoring coastal change, educating communities, relocating from rising sea levels, creating alternative livelihood
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why do coastal communities face increasing problems?
rising global sea levels, uncertainty about scale of the rise, increased frequent storms and possible increase of erosion and flooding
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what is a holistic approach?
considering a long length, all stakeholders and a long time scale
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what is ICZM and what does it do?
Integrated Coastal Zone Management, aim to establish sustainable levels of economic and social activity
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what is a shoreline management plan?
national strategy for flood and coastal defences, corporation between all the relevant coast protection authorities
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what does hold the line mean?
maintenance of current position
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what does advance the line mean?
extending coastline out to sea
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what does do nothing mean?
no investment in defences
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what does managed retreat mean?
allowing coastline to retreat but in a managed way
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what is DEFRA?
Department for Environmental Food and Rural Affairs
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what is a cost benefit analysis?
carried out before a coastal management project is given the go-ahead, costs are forecast then compared with expected benefits
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who are the different players in policy decisions?
residents, business owners, local tax payers, local councils, environmentalists/conversationalists
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what are SSSI sites?
a site of specific scientific interest
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what does DEFRA do?
government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities
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what is thermal expansion?
when the earth is at its warmest most ice will have melted and the oceans will absorb heat and expand, these processes combine to raise sea levels
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


describe a high energy coastline


have very powerful waves, rate of erosion is higher than rate of deposition

Card 3


what erosional landforms tend to be found in high energy areas?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


describe a low energy coastline


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what depositional landforms tend to be found in low energy areas?


Preview of the front of card 5
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