AQA Psychology- Unit 4

What is the definition of a phobia?
A persistent fear that is identified by the individual as irrational
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What are the 3 main types of phobias?
Specific, social, agorophobia
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What categories do symptoms fall under?
Emotional (panic), cognitive (irrational thoughts), Physical (sweating), behavioural (running away)
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What are the issues relating to classification of phobias?
Test-retest reliablity, Inter-rater reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation, cultural differences
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What are the evaluative studies of issues relating to classification of phobias?
Skyre, Eysenck, Szasz, TKS
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What is Skyre et al find?
Studied 3 clinicians and 5 patients and found that the inter-rater reliability was +.72, showing high IR possibly due to extensive training
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What did Ensenck find?
66% of patients with 1 disorder had another leading to inaccurate diagnosis, confirming the idea of co-morbidity
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What did Szasz propose?
There is no such thing as mental illness, Instead it's a way for society to label and exclude those who don't fit in
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What are the psychological therapies for phobias and explain each?
Systematic desensiatisation (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) and CBT (REBT-ABC)
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What are the biological therapies for phobias and explain each?
Drug therapies (Benzodiazapines, beta blockers, MAOIs), Psychosurgery (Capsulatomy: probe inserted and capsule tissue is burnt away, Cingulotomy: probe inserted and cingulum burn't away, Deep brain stimulation)
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What a the psychological explanations for phobic disorders?
Behavioural approach (classical conditioning- association, operant condtioning- consequence, Social learing theory) Psychodynamic explanation (phobias are repressed conflicts of the unconscious)
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What are the biological explanations for phobic disorders?
Evolutionary explanations (expectancy bias, ancient fears, prepotency) + Biological explanations (inherit certain genetics from parents who suffer)
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What are the evaluative points for psycological explanations for phobic disorders?
Mineka et al, Ohman + Soares, Ost, Torgerson
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What did Mineka et al find?
Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations
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What did Ohman + Soares find?
Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency
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What did Ost find?
64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder
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What did Torgerson find?
Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder
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What are the evaluative points for psychological explanations of phobias?
Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans
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What did Bregmans find?
Failed to condition infants to fear a wooden block when associated with a loud bell, supporting biological preparedness
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What did Bandura and Rosenthal find?
Observer watched a model apparently experience pain each time a buzzer sounded and later showed emotional distress towards buzzer, supporting the social learning theory
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Card 2

Front

What are the 3 main types of phobias?

Back

Specific, social, agorophobia

Card 3

Front

What categories do symptoms fall under?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the issues relating to classification of phobias?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the evaluative studies of issues relating to classification of phobias?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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